Mary Tudor, Queen of England , Bloody Mary.
Mary was the first Mary Queen of England and is known as Mary 1, Queen of Queen of England was the granddaughter of Henry VII and Mary Queen of Scots was the wife would be Anne Boleyn, who would become the mother of Elizabeth I. Unfortunately, this suggested marriage was met with such great hostility, that. Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December – 8 February ), also known as Mary Stuart or On 24 July she was forced to abdicate in favour of her one- year-old son Mary had once claimed Elizabeth's throne as her own, and was considered .. Darnley's parents, the Earl and Countess of Lennox, who were Scottish. Although they were cousins, Elizabeth I and Mary Stuart had little in the way of familial And we recently did a podcast on Queen Elizabeth I, and it got us thinking because Elizabeth - they don't recognize Elizabeth's parents' marriage , that of . Sarah Dowdy: So they both really want to meet each other though, and they.
To marry Darnley would combine their claims to the English throne, and secure the Scottish throne more effectively. In addition, Darnley was the right age, handsome, charming and accomplished. It seemed to be a match made in heaven. Mary was enchanted and married him out of hand on 29 th July She was in too much of a hurry even to obtain the necessary Papal dispensation. Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Elizabeth claimed to be furious although a plausible case can be made for her having deviously engineered the match — she probably knew more about Darnley's character than Mary had had the opportunity to discover.
Good on paper, the marriage was a disaster. Darnley was spoilt, drunken, probably syphilitic and bisexual. He dreamed of power, without the ability to use it effectively and Mary repented her marriage within a very few months. Darnley did, however, perform his main duty as a husband.
Mary was pregnant within three months. Assassinations Moray was not pleased by this Catholic newcomer ousting him from his role as the Queen's right-hand man. He and other senior Protestant Lords rebelled, and attempted to take Edinburgh. Mary speedily gathered her forces and, in what became known as the Chaseabout Raid, chased Moray and his colleagues around Scotland, without the two sides ever coming to blows. Moray retreated to England, and Mary increased her number of advisers, bringing in both Catholics and Protestants to her Privy Council.
Darnley, rather than supporting his wife, was demanding the Crown Matrimonial — this would not only have made him King of Scots in fact, as well as in name, but would have allowed him to continue as monarch during his life-time, even if Mary pre-deceased him.
Mary was no more keen than Elizabeth to create a situation where her death would be to her heir's advantage, and robustly refused. He raged and sulked, and, eventually, conspired with the rebellious Protestant Lords to capture Mary and assassinate her secretary, David Rizzio, of whom he was jealous. Darnley and his men burst into Mary's apartments at Holyrood Palace, dragged Rizzio screaming out of the room and stabbed him to death.
Mary was restrained by her husband, whilst a loaded pistol was pointed at her heavily pregnant belly.'Mary Queen Of Scots': Margot Robbie Dishes On Her Movie Make-Under & Saoirse Ronan Recounts Getting
The following twenty-four hours show Mary at her best. Locked into her apartments with Darnley, she persuaded him that his co-conspirators would turn their attentions to him next and they hatched an escape plan. A message was smuggled out to her supporters to have horses brought, and she and Darnley found a way out of the palace. They took the horses, and fled into the night.
Before long, Mary was back in control. On 19 th June she gave birth to a healthy baby boy. She still had the liability of Darnley to deal with. She contemplated annulment, on the grounds that there had been no dispensation for their marriage, but that would have affected the prince's legitimacy.
Her Lords were equally tired of him. No-one knows for certain who was responsible, but it may be inferred that there was a plot to dispose of Darnley and that Mary preferred not to know about it. So far, so traditional. Mary effected a reconciliation with Darnley, and encouraged him to return to a house at Kirk O'Fields, Edinburgh, where she nursed him through a bout of illness.
One evening, she left him in his sickbed to go to a wedding party. Much to everyone's astonishment, his house blew up in the middle of the night and his body was found in the garden, with no evidence of the explosion — he had been suffocated.
Misjudgements The correct course of action for Mary to take, would have been to express horror, dress in mourning, find some scapegoats and hang them. What happened, in fact, is that she was seen frequently with the prime suspect, James Hepburn, 4 th Earl of Bothwell, and supported him when he was accused of the murder.
James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell No steps were taken to find out who had been responsible until, eventually, Darnley's father, the Earl of Lennox, managed to bring a prosecution against Bothwell. Ignoring all of the advice she received, Mary made her support of Bothwell plain and he was acquitted.
In AprilMary went to Stirling to visit her son. On her way back to Edinburgh, Bothwell abducted her, and allegedly raped her. Whoever had been responsible for the murder, the Lords now backed off from the Queen. Instead of having Bothwell arrested and punished, she married him. This was too much for the public, and the Protestant Lords to bear although Bothwell was also a Protestant.
Armies were raised, and faced each other on 15 th June at Carberry Hill. Mary surrendered, sending Bothwell for help. He reached Scandinavia, but was arrested and held in prison for the rest of his life. Island fortress of Loch Leven where Mary was held captive Mary, paraded through the streets of Edinburgh as murderess and whore, was imprisoned at the island fortress of Lochleven. Not long after, she miscarried of twins.
Resourceful and charming as ever, Mary managed to persuade someone to help her escape to raise another army but she was defeated in the field at Langside. At this point, she made another dire mistake.
Instead of taking ship for France, she galloped over the English border, believing her sister Queen would help her. Captive Queen Elizabeth and her lords snapped the trap shut. Mary was incarcerated in honourable confinement, allegedly until she could prove her innocence of the murder of Darnley. A tribunal was held at York, to investigate the death of Darnley, but Mary refused to acknowledge its jurisdiction. She was a Queen, and not a subject of England. The evidence presented sent by the Earl of Moraynow Regent for James, amidst serious opposition consisted of the documents known as the Casket Letters.
The Casket Letters contain various documents purporting to be from Mary to Bothwell, together with sonnets and marriage contracts. Mary said they were forgeries, and that her writing was not hard to imitate. The documents were later destroyed, and the available copies have been read in different ways by historians — some believing them genuine, others that they were forgeries, and some that parts are genuine with forged interpolations.
The tribunal came to no conclusion, which suited Elizabeth well. She neither wanted Mary convicted, because she could not countenance a sovereign being deposed and executed, nor acquitted, as she might then have to support Mary in her bid to reclaim the Scottish throne.
During these years, she lived comfortably enough, her dower as Queen of France was paid regularly, and she had the company of Shrewsbury's wife, the formidable Bess of Hardwick. Together the women sewed and gossiped examples of their embroidery may be seen at Oxburgh Hallalthough they eventually fell out, with Bess accusing her husband of being in love with Queen Mary. Bess of Hardwick, Countess of Shrewsbury Shrewsbury, in fact, was miserable. Elizabeth refused to pay all of the costs of Mary's incarceration and he was obliged to foot much of the bill himself.
In addition, he was personally responsible for a woman who was known for her ability to charm her way out of tough situations — if she escaped, Shrewsbury would undoubtedly pay with his head. His fears were justified. Mary made every attempt to escape, becoming involved in a number of plots against Elizabeth. From Mary's perspective, this was entirely justified. She was being held against her will and she had warned the English government that "If I shall be holden here perforce, you may be sure then, being as a desperate person, I will use any attempts that may serve my purpose, either by myself or by my friends.
The plots were variously backed by France and Spain, and, perhaps, in the case of the Babington Plot, actually fomented by the English Government to entrap Mary.
In the latter case, letters were smuggled in and out in the bungs of beer barrels supplied by a local brewer. They're always feuding with each other.
Then supporting the crown! And we have to consider too, there has been a regency while the Queen has been a minority, for 18 years. So they haven't had a strong ruler for a generation. Mary does okay, at least at first with her illegitimate half-brother James, Earl of Moray. She comes to a sort of policy of religious tolerance. So at least in that respect there's no more fighting, or things are at somewhat of a peace, as far as religion goes.
She can practice her Catholic religion but not pull a Mary Tudor, for instance, and have everyone burned at the stake. And some people are happy to have her there, because again, they've had that regency for so long, they haven't had a Monarch around in a long time and she is beautiful and charming and pleasant to be around.
So, you know, maybe she'll be good for Scotland after all. And when she gets back to Scotland, she immediately starts working on Elizabeth to be named Elizabeth's heir, of which, as we said earlier, by birth she would be. But she's sort of downgraded her ambitions at this point. She's not trying to be named Queen of England.
She's not calling herself Queen of England any more.
She just wants to be Elizabeth's heir. And Mary likes and dislikes Elizabeth as well. These aren't just complicated feelings on a Elizabeth's part, because on one hand Elizabeth has been helping the Protestants cause trouble for Mary and Scotland. But friendly relationships would only help. They both realize it would benefit them to be friendly.
But Elizabeth can't name Mary her heir. And this is what's at least somewhat at the crux of their relationship; because that's one of the reasons Elizabeth never wanted to get married at all. She didn't want to name an heir in her lifetime, because it would be a threat to her, and there's a really good quote about that.
Yeah, she says, think you that I could love my winding sheet when as examples show, Princes cannot even love their children that are to succeed them. And she goes on to say that she's been a witness to this desire to overthrow the current Prince with whoever the heir is.
Something she's seen in her sister's lifetime, when Mary Tudor was Queen, people were saying it's time for Elizabeth, Elizabeth should be Queen instead. So she knows what it's like. And so her fear and reluctance in that context make sense with her being friends with Mary.
But they are quite cordial at least for a time, and Mary is even a bit courtly.
Elizabeth Q&A: Did Elizabeth and Mary, Queen of Scots Ever Meet?
On seeing her cousin Elizabeth's portrait, she said she wished that one of them was a man so that their kingdoms could be united by marital alliances. Which we thought was really interesting; because of course that is how you played the game then. You married off eligible people to create these political alliances. But when you had these two - Sarah Dowdy: Two single Queens, it was stalemate.
What's going to happen? One of them is going to win, and we'll see which one a little bit later. So they both really want to meet each other though, and they come pretty close to it inbut a religious war between the Catholics and Huguenots in France upsets the meeting and they're really devastated by it. Mary apparently cried all day and was only consoled when somebody told her that Elizabeth was just as upset. So there's a real personal element to this relationship too.
They're curious about each other. But the thorn in their relationship, of course, is the fact that they both are two single Queens. But Elizabeth has of course set herself up as the Virgin Queen, a reputation she's worked very hard to maintain. Whereas Mary, on the other hand, temperamentally isn't suited to be single! She doesn't want to be, And she also has to think about the interests of Scotland.
It is in her interest to get married. But of course any choice she makes, much like Elizabeth, is pretty much impossible. Yeah, Elizabeth thinks that she'll be okay with Mary's choice, as long as it's somebody agreeable to the English. Namely, not a Catholic Prince from Spain, Austria or France, which would be a very powerful alliance that Elizabeth does not want to happen! So instead she offers up a man named Robert Dudley, and we'll talk about him more in another podcast in relationship to Elizabeth.
But he was Elizabeth's great love. So - Sarah Dowdy: So this is a weird match. And it was also an insulting one to Mary, because Dudley was a low birth and he's tainted because he's implicated in the very mysterious death of his wife.
So Mary is genuinely insulted by this idea of a match. He's kind of Elizabeth's reject. Elizabeth can't marry him herself at this point. And Dudley's not interested in this match either. So he doesn't want to move to Scotland and leave Elizabeth. So she's game playing a little bit. Yeah, so Mary declines and invitation to meet with Elizabeth, which, of course, greatly offends Elizabeth. And eventually Mary's advisors write to Elizabeth's advisors, my guys will call your guys, and tell her that Mary won't even consider marrying Dudley, unless Elizabeth would settle succession on her.
And after that Elizabeth's quiet. The game is over, Mary has called her on it basically. But at this point another possible suitor enters the game and his name is Lord Darnley. So Lord Darnley made a little shot at Mary when she was first widowed. His mother sent him to France to press his suit with Mary. She wasn't interested at the time. But Elizabeth was very disturbed by this, because Lord Darnley is also a Tudor claimant.
Rival Queens: Mary Stuart and Elizabeth I | Stuff You Missed in History Class
He's a cousin of Mary's. Elizabeth doesn't want any consolidation of the Tudor claims. So when Darnley returns from France, she has him and his mother arrested.
But by this time they've patched things up, Elizabeth is okay with them again. She lets Darnley go to Scotland on family business, whatever that might be. And it's kind of suspicious here, because she knows what Darnley's intention is regarding Mary. Not honorable, let's put it that way. Or at least honorable that he wants to marry her.
But he's not an honorable guy. There are several accounts of him being basically someone who's really nice on the outside, and once you get to know him you realize - Katie Lambert: He's described as vicious. So it's kind of suspicious that Elizabeth is sending him. She might know how this all plays out. Right, and planning this is something that could possibly ruin May. So three nights before Darnley arrives, spectral warriors are seen fighting in the streets of Edinburgh at midnight.
And I think - Sarah Dowdy: That can't be good. And soon enough - Sarah Dowdy: Mary welcomes him and soon enough falls in love with him. They're both young, they're both very attractive, and as Katie said earlier, being single does not suit Mary.
And they announce their engagement, and I love this, so Elizabeth has let Darnley go to Scotland knowing what might happen. But she completely plays dumb and is shocked by the engagement and arrests Darnley's mother. And Mary quite understandable is saying, hey, I thought you wanted me to marry a English guy, and I am. So they get married in July ofand it is quickly revealed to Mary that she has made a very bad choice. Darnley is simply not a good guy.
And it's not just her who decides to hate him; it's all of the Scottish Lords. All those contentious Lords did not like Darnley, and things get really bad by Marchso less than a year after the marriage. In the Rizzio murder, Darnley and other Lords plot to murder Mary's favorite in front of her. She's heavily pregnant by this point and they're hoping that she'll be so shocked by seeing this man killed in front of her, you know, at her feet essentially, that she's be debilitated and Darnley will act as maybe a Regent or maybe a King.
It's just completely delusional thinking because no one would have ever let that happen. Again, they hated him. So Mary is confined for a few days and she is much brighter than her somewhat dimwitted husband, and she convinces him that the conspirators are going to go after him next.
There's no way he's going to be a Regent or a co-ruler or something. So she gets all of his conspirator's names out of him and they end up escaping through servant quarters and ride 25 miles to safety. Once again, while she's heavily pregnant. The relations between Elizabeth and Mary actually improve after this, after obviously Elizabeth was disappointed with Mary's choice of husband and things had gotten a little frosty there. But Elizabeth is so horrified that something like this would happen in front of a fellow sovereign Queen, an anointed Queen, that she warms up to Mary again.
And in a fun little story, Elizabeth sends a gold font for the baby, but not realizing that the Baptism took place a few months after the birth. The font she sent was much too small for - Sarah Dowdy: But the birth doesn't help Mary and Darnley reconcile. And she's starting to think, okay, I have a male heir. How can I get rid of this husband. She was really upset about the prospect of spending her days with him.
But annulment is out of the question, because that would mean that James is illegitimate and she can't do that. She needs an heir.
So her options are pretty much divorce or arresting him for treason. But the question is answered for her in So on the night of February 9th, Mary is supposed to spend the night with Darnley, but she realizes at the last minute that she has a mask to attend and goes out. Meanwhile, Darnley's room is blown up, seriously, and he runs out into the night naked and is strangled to death. That's quite a story, and we're going to talk about it more later, because it's too good to pass up.
Now that'll be a different podcast. But after his death, Mary doesn't conduct herself in the wisest manner. In fact, she married the chief suspect, James Hepburn, who is the 4th Earl of Bothwell, just three months after the death and also after he abduct and ravished her, according to accounts. And that's always been unclear, was it a willing abduction or did this guy just steal her for real.
And he's married at the time. So he's granted a divorce to marry her, so again, things aren't looking to great as far as Mary's choices are going. But she may just have been very simple sad at that point.
She's in ill health; she needs a strong man to help her manage Scotland. She's already married once badly and she's, you know, go her heir and has to figure out how she's going to live the rest of her life. True, but Elizabeth is disgusted by Mary's actions and she even compares them to her own relation with her true love, Dudley and his wife's mysterious death and how she's conducted herself so properly after this, contrasted with Mary running away with this guy. Elizabeth even wants little Prince James sent to England so she can rear him under her protection, rather than him being with Mary and this strange new man.
But Mary and Bothwell part ways on June 15, He's forced into exile and imprisonment by those Lords who, you know, having just gotten rid of Darnley, they're not wiling to put up with Bothwell. But Mary herself is imprisoned on a tiny island in the middle of a loch, and deposed in favor of her one year old son, James. And Elizabeth is completely outraged.
She was outraged by Mary's actions to being with, but now she's even more outraged by what the Scottish Lords have done by deposing Mary, because Elizabeth has very strong viewpoints about, again, appropriate behavior one, and about the monarchy and how you treat - Sarah Dowdy: And this was simply in appropriate, and a lot of historians have suggested that if Elizabeth hadn't protested so much against their actions, then the Scottish Lords would have executed Mary.
Without much ado at all. And that really is the crux of their relationship. This is why Elizabeth hesitates over the Mary question for so long.
Because actively trying to depose or sentence to death a fellow monarch sets a really dangerous precedent, and it's not something Elizabeth wants to get into. But in contrast, all these helpful things she's doing, at the same time in March ofElizabeth is eyeing Mary's jewels, which of course have been put up for auction, and she outbids Catherine De Medici for her pearls.