exceed - Wiktionary
Synonyms; Antonyms; Derived terms; Related terms; exceed (third-person singular simple present exceeds, present participle Dictionary website: "There is no established opposite to the word exceed, and it is. Synonyms for exceed at gtfd.info with free online thesaurus, related have a card up one's sleeve*, have the jump on*, cut out*, meet one at every turn *, beat by Charlton Laird and the editors of Webster's New World dictionaries. Define exceed. exceed synonyms, exceed pronunciation, exceed translation, English dictionary definition of exceed. tr.v. ex·ceed·ed, ex·ceed·ing, ex·ceeds 1.
Commissioning — advancement of an installation from the stage of static completion to full working order and achievement of the specified operational requirements. Commitment — A binding financial obligation, typically in the form of a purchase order or contract.
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Committed costs — costs legally committed even if delivery has not taken place with invoices neither raised nor paid. Communication — the transmission of information so that the recipient understands clearly what the sender intends. Completed — Project status describing work that has moved through the full project lifecycle and has been accepted as complete by the customer or client.
Completion date — the date calculated by which the project could finish following careful estimating. Compound risk — a risk made up of a number of inter-related risks. Conception phase — the phase that triggers and captures new ideas or opportunities and identifies potential candidates for further development in the feasibility phase Concurrent Engineering — An approach to project staffing that, in its most general form, calls for implementers to be involved in the design phase.
Sometimes confused with fast tracking. Configuration — functional and physical characteristics of a product as defined in technical documents and achieved in the product.
Configurations audit — a check to ensure that all deliverable items on a project conform with one another and to the current specification. It ensures that relevant quality assurance procedures have been implemented and that there is consistency throughout project documentation. Configurations control — a system through which changes may be made to configuration items.
Configuration identification — identifies uniquely all items within the configuration. Configuration item — a part of configuration that has a set function and is designated for configuration management.
It identifies uniquely all items within the configuration. Configuration management — technical and administrative activities concerned with the creation, maintenance and controlled change of configuration throughout the life of the product.
Configuration status accounting — records and reports the current status and history of all changes to the configuration.
Provides a complete record of what happened to the configuration to date Conflict management — the ability to manage conflict creatively and effectively. Constraint — Applicable restriction affecting the performance of the project. Any factor affecting when an activity can be scheduled.Surplus Meaning Definition Pronunciation Example Synonym Antonyms
Consumable resource — a type of resource that only remains available until consumed for example, a material. Contingencies — See reserve and contingency planning. Contingency — a contingency is the planned allotment of time and cost or other resources for unforeseeable elements with a project. Contingency Allowance — See reserve. Contingency plan — Alternative course s of action devised to cope with project risks.
Contingency planning — the development of a management plan using alternative strategies to minimize or negate the adverse effects of a risk, should it occur. For example, rework is certain, the amount of rework is not. Contingency reserves may involve cost, schedule, or both.
Contingency reserves are intended to reduce the impact of missing cost or schedule objectives. Contract — A contract is a mutually binding agreement which obligates the seller to provide the specified product and obligates the buyer to pay for it. Contracts generally fall into one of three broad categories: Fixed price or lump sum contracts—this category of contract involves a fixed total price for a well-defined product.
Fixed price contracts may also include incentives for meeting or exceeding selected project objectives such as schedule targets. Cost reimbursable contracts—this category of contract involves payment reimbursement to the contractor for its actual costs.
Costs are usually classified as direct costs costs incurred directly by the project, such as wages for members of the project team and indirect costs costs allocated to the project by the performing organization as a cost of doing business, such as salaries for corporate executives.
Indirect costs are usually calculated as a percentage of direct costs. Cost reimbursable contracts often include incentives for meeting or exceeding selected project objectives such as schedule targets or total cost. Unit price contracts—the contractor is paid a preset amount per unit of service e. Contract Administration — Managing the relationship with the seller. Contract budget base — the negotiated contract cost value plus the estimated value of authorized but unpriced work.
Contract Close-out — Completion and settlement of the contract, including resolution of all outstanding items. The contract target cost equals the value of the budget at completion plus management or contingency reserve. Contract target price — the negotiated estimated costs plus profit or fee.
Control — The process of comparing actual performance with planned performance, analyzing variances, evaluating possible alternatives, and taking appropriate corrective action as needed. Control Charts — Control charts are a graphic display of the results, over time and against established control limits, of a process.
Coordination — the act of ensuring that work carried out by different organizations and in different places fits together effectively. It involves technical matters, time, content, and cost in order to achieve the project objectives effectively. Corrective Action — Changes made to bring expected future performance of the project into line with the plan.
Cost account — defines what work is to be performed who will perform it and who is to pay for it. Cost accounts are the focal point for the integration of scope, cost, and schedule. Another term for cost account is control account.
Cost account manager — a member of a functional organization responsible for cost account performance, and for the management of resources to accomplish such tasks. Cost benefit analysis — an analysis of the relationship between the costs of undertaking a task or project, initial and recurrent, and the benefits likely to arise from the changed situation, initially and recurrently. Allows comparison of the returns from alternative forms of investment.
Cost breakdown structure — hierarchical breakdown of a project into cost elements. Cost budgeting — allocating cost estimates to individual project components. Cost center — location, person, activity or project in respect of which costs may be ascertained and related to cost units.
Cost code — unique identitier for a specified element of work. Code assigned to activities that allow costs to be consolidated according to the elements of a code structure. Cost Control — Controlling changes to the project budget.
Cost control point — the point within a program at which costs are entered and controlled. Frequently, the cost control point for a project is either the cost account or the work package. Cost control system — any system of keeping costs within the bounds of budgets or standards based upon work actually performed.
Cost curve — a graph plotted against a horizontal time scale and cumulative cost vertical scale. Cost element — a unit of costs to perform a task or to acquire an item. The cost estimated may be a single value or a range of values. Cost Estimating — Estimating the cost of the resources needed to complete project activities.
Cost incurred — costs identified through the use of the accrued method of accounting or costs actually paid. Costs include direct labor, direct materials, and all allowable indirect costs. Cost management — the effective financial control of the project through evaluating, estimating, budgeting, monitoring, analyzing, forecasting and reporting the cost information.
Cost of Quality — The costs incurred to ensure quality. The cost of quality includes quality planning, quality control, quality assurance, and rework. CPI is often used to predict the magnitude of a possible cost overrun using the following formula: The cost efficiency ratio of earned value to actual costs. CPI is often used to predict the magnitude of a possible cost overrun.
Cost performance report — a regular cost report to reflect cost and schedule status information for management. Cost plan — A budget which shows the amounts and expected dates of incurring costs on the project or on a contract. Risk for all growth over the estimated value rests with the project owner. Cost-time resource sheet CTR — a document that describes each major element in the work breakdown structure, including a statement of work SOW describing the work content, resources required, the time frame of the work element and a cost estimate.
Typical approaches for crashing a schedule include reducing schedule activity durations and increasing the assignment of resources on schedule activities. Credited resource created by an activity or event and can then be used by the project. Critical Activity — Any activity on a critical path with zero or negative float. Most commonly determined by using the critical path method. Criticality index — used in risk analysis, the criticality index represents the percentage of simulation trails that resulted in the activity being placed on the critical path.
Critical Path — In a project network diagram, the series of activities which determines the earliest completion of the project. The critical path will generally change from time to time as activities are completed ahead of or behind schedule. Although normally calculated for the entire project, the critical path can also be determined for a milestone or subproject.
The critical path is usually defined as those activities with float less than or equal to a specified value, often zero. See critical path method. Critical path analysis — procedure for calculating the critical path and floats in a network. Critical Path Method CPM — A network analysis technique used to predict project duration by analyzing which sequence of activities which path has the least amount of scheduling flexibility the least amount of float.
Early dates are calculated by means of a forward pass using a specified start date.
Critical performance indicator — a critical factor against which aspects of project performance may be assessed Critical success factor — a factor considered to be most conducive to the achievement of a successful project Current Finish Date — The current estimate of the point in time when an activity will be completed.
Current Start Date — The current estimate of the point in time when an activity will begin. Customer — any person who defines needs or wants, justifies or pays for part or the entire project, or evaluates or uses the results. Could be the project promoter, client, owner or employer Cut-off date — the ending date of a reporting period. CV — Cost Variance Dangle — an activity or network which has either no predecessors or no successors.
If neither, it is referred to as an isolated activity. Data Date DD — The point in time that separates actual historical data from future scheduled data. Also called as-of date.
Decision event — state in the progress of a project when a decision is required before the start of any succeeding activity. Definitive Estimate — See estimate. Delaying resource — in resource scheduling, inadequate availability of one or more resources may require that the completion of an activity be delayed beyond the date on which it could otherwise be completed. The delaying resource is the first resource on an activity that causes the activity to be delayed.
Delegation — the practice of effectively getting others to perform work which one chooses not to do oneself. The process by which authority and responsibility is distributed from project manager to subordinates.
Deliberate decision event — decision event where the decision is made as a result of the outcomes of the preceding activities and possibly other information. A deliberate decision event cannot be made automatically Deliverables — end products of a project or the measurable results of intermediate activities within the project organization.
Delphi technique — a process where a consensus view is reached by consultation with experts. Often used as an estimating technique. Denied — Project status describing proposed project work that will not be considered. Dependency — precedence relationship. Restriction that one activity has to precede, either in part or in total, another activity.
Dependencies are relationships between products or tasks. See logical relationship Dependency arrow — A link arrow used in an activity on a node network to represent the interrelationships of activities in a project.
Design authority — the person or organization with overall design responsibility for the products of the project Design and development — phase The time period in which facility and production processes are developed and designed.
Deterministic network — contains paths, all of which have to be followed and whose durations are fixed. Direct costs — costs specifically attributable to an activity or group of activities without apportionment.
Direct costs are best contrasted with indirect costs that cannot be identified to a specific project. Discounted cash flow DCF — concept of relating future cash inflows and outflows over the life of a project or operation to a common base value thereby allowing more validity to comparison of projects with different durations and rates of cash flow. Discrete milestone — a milestone that has a definite scheduled occurrence in time.
Logical link that may require time but no other resource. Dummy activity in activity on arrow network — an activity representing no actual work to be done but required for reasons of logic or nomenclature. DU — Duration Dummy Activity — An activity of zero duration used to show a logical relationship in the arrow diagramming method.
Dummy activities are used when logical relationships cannot be completely or correctly described with regular activity arrows. Dummies are shown graphically as a dashed line headed by an arrow. Duration DU — The number of work periods not including holidays or other non-working periods required to complete an activity or other project element. Usually expressed as workdays or workweeks. Sometimes incorrectly equated with elapsed time.
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Duration Compression — Shortening the project schedule without reducing the project scope. Duration compression is not always possible and often requires an increase in project cost. EAC — Estimate At Completion Earliest feasible date — The earliest date on which the activity could be scheduled to start based on the scheduled dates of all its predecessors, but in the absence of any resource constraints on the activity itself.
This date is calculated by resource scheduling. Early dates — calculated in the forward pass of time analysis, early dates are the earliest dates on which an activity can start and finish. Early Finish Date EF — In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of an activity or the project can finish based on the network logic and any schedule constraints.
Early finish dates can change as the project progresses and changes are made to the project plan. Early Start Date ES — In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of an activity or the project can start, based on the network logic and any schedule constraints. Early start dates can change as the project progresses and changes are made to the project plan. Earned hours — the time in standard hours credited as a result of the completion of a given task or a group of tasks.
Earned Value EV — A measure of the value of completed work. Earned value uses original estimates and progress-to-date to show whether the actual costs incurred are on budget and whether the tasks are ahead or behind the baseline schedule.
Earned value analysis — analysis of project progress where the actual money, hours or other measure budgeted and spent is compared to the value of the work achieved. Earned value cost control — the quantification of the overall progress of a project in financial terms so as to provide a realistic yardstick against which to compare the actual cost to date. EF — Early Finish date Effort — the number of labor units necessary to complete the work. Effort is usually expressed in staff-hours, staff-days or staff-weeks and should not be confused with duration.
Effort-driven activity — an activity whose duration is governed by resource usage and availability. The resource requiring the greatest time to complete the specified amount of work on the activity will determine its duration. Effort remaining — the estimate of effort remaining to complete an activity. Elapsed time — elapsed time is the total number of calendar days excluding non-work days such as weekends or holidays that is needed to complete an activity.
It gives a realistic view of how long an activity is scheduled to take for completion. End activity — an activity with no logical successors. End event of a project — event with proceeding, but no succeeding activities.
Environmental factoring — use of data relating to an external factor such as the weather to modify or bias the value of parameters concerned. Equivalent activity — activity that is equivalent, in the probabilistic sense, to any combination of series and parallel activities. Usually applied to project costs and durations and should always include some indication of accuracy e. Some application areas have specific modifiers that imply particular accuracy ranges e. Estimate to complete ETC — the value expressed in either money or hours developed to represent the cost of the work required to complete a task.
Estimating — the act of combining the results of post project reviews, metrics, consultation and informed assessment to arrive at time and resource requirements for an activity. A defined point that is the beginning or end of an activity Event-on-Node — A network diagramming technique in which events are represented by boxes or nodes connected by arrows to show the sequence in which the events are to occur.
Used in the original Program Evaluation and Review Technique. Exception report — focused report drawing attention to instances where planned and actual results are expected to be, or are already, significantly different.
The actual values may be trending better or worse than plan. Exclusive OR relationship — Logical relationship indicating that only one of the possible activities can be undertaken. Sometimes called the implementation phase Expenditure — a charge against available funds, evidenced by a voucher, claim, or other documents. Expenditures represent the actual payment of funds.
Exceptions — occurrences causing deviation from a plan, such as issues, change requests and risks. Exceptions can also refer to items where the cost variance and schedule variance exceed predefined thresholds. External constraint — a constraint from outside the project network.
Fast—tracking — Reducing the duration of a project usually by overlapping phases or activities originally planned to be to done sequentially. The process of reducing the number of sequential relationships and replacing them typically with parallel relationships, usually to achieve shorter overall durations but often with increased risk. Fallback plan — a plan for an alternative course of action that can be adopted to overcome the consequences of a risk, should it occur including carrying out any advance activities that may be required to render the plan practical.
Feasibility study — analysis to determine if a course of action is possible within the terms of reference of the project. Normally a retrospective report that formally closes the project having handed over the project deliverables for operational use. Finishing activity — a finishing activity is the last activity that must be completed before a project can be considered finished.
This activity is not a predecessor to any other activity-it has no successors. Finish-to-Finish FF — See logical relationship. Finish-To-finish lag the finish-to-finish lag is the minimum amount of time that must pass between the finish of one activity and the finish of its successor s. Finish-to-Start FS — See logical relationship. Finish-to-start lag — the finish-to-start lag is the minimum amount of time that must pass between the finish of one activity and the start of its successor s.
The default finish-to-start lag is zero. Fixed date — a calendar date associated with a plan that cannot be moved or changed during the schedule. Fixed-duration scheduling — a scheduling method in which, regardless of the number of resources assigned to the task, the duration remains the same. Fixed finish — See imposed finish. Fixed-price — contracts a generic category of contracts based on the establishment of firm legal commitments to complete the required work.
A performing contractor is legally obligated to finish the job, no matter how much it costs to complete. Risks of all cost growth rest on the performing contractor. Fixed start — See imposed start. Fixed Price Incentive Fee FPIF Contract — A type of contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount as defined by the contractand the seller can earn an additional amount if it meets defined performance criteria.
Float — The amount of time an activity may be delayed from its early start without delaying the project finish date. Float is a mathematical calculation and can change as the project progresses and changes are made to the project plan. Also called slack, total float, and path float.
See also free float. Forecast at completion — scheduled cost for a task. Forecast Final Cost — See estimate at completion. Forward Pass — The calculation of the early start and early finish dates for the uncompleted portions of all network activities. See also network analysis and backward pass. Free Float FF — The amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of any immediately following activities.
FS — Finish-to-Start Functional Manager — A manager responsible for activities in a specialized department or functional group e. Functional matrix — an organization type where the project has a team leader in each functional department and the products are passed from one team to the next.
Functional organization — management structure where specific functions of an organization are grouped into specialist departments providing dedicated services. Examples of functional organization are finance, marketing and design departments.
Functional specification — a document specifying in some detail the functions that is required of a system and the constraints that will apply Funding profile — an estimate of funding requirements over time. Gantt chart — particular type of bar chart showing planned activity against time. A Gantt chart is a time-phased graphic display of activity durations. Activities are listed with other tabular information on the left side with time intervals over the bars.
Activity durations are shown in the form of horizontal bars. GERT — Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique Goal — a one-sentence definition of specifically what will be accomplished, while incorporating an event signifying completion.
Grade — A category or rank used to distinguish items that have the same functional use e. Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique GERT — A network analysis technique that allows for conditional and probabilistic treatment of logical relationships i.
Hammock — An aggregate or summary activity a group of related activities is shown as one and reported at a summary level. A hammock may or may not have an internal sequence. See also subproject and subnet. Hammock activity — joining two specified points, that span two or more activities. Hammocks are usually used to collect time-dependent information, e.
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A group of activities, milestones, or other hammocks aggregated together for analysis or reporting purposes. Sometimes used to describe an activity such as management support that has no duration of its own but derives one from the time difference between the two points to which it is connected. Handover — The formal process of transferring responsibility for and ownership of the products of a project to the operator or owner.
Hanger — An unintended break in a network path. Hangers are usually caused by missing activities or missing logical relationships. Hierarchy of networks — Range of networks at different levels of detail, from summary down to working levels, showing the relationships between those networks. Histogram — a graphic display of planned and or actual resource usage over a period of time. It is in the form of a vertical bar chart, the height of each bar representing the quantity of resource usage in a given time unit.
Bars may be single, multiple, or show stacked resources. Holiday — an otherwise valid working day that has been designated as exempt from work. Host organization — organization providing the administrative and logistical support for the project. Hypercritical activities — activities on the critical path with negative float. Impact analysis — assessing the merits of pursuing a particular course of action. Implementation phase — the project phase that develops the chosen solution into a completed deliverable.
Imposed date — point in time determined by circumstances outside the network. Imposed finish — a finished date imposed on an activity by external constraints. Imposed start — a start date imposed on an activity by external constraints. Inclusive OR relationship — logical relationship indicating that at least one but not necessarily all of the activities have to be undertaken.
Indirect cost — Costs associated with a project that cannot be directly attributed to an activity or group of activities. Resources expended which are not directly identified to any specific contract, project, product or service, such as overheads and general administration.
Information Distribution — Making needed information available to project stakeholders in a timely manner. In-house project — a project commissioned and carried out entirely within a single organization Initiation — Committing the organization to begin a project or phase. In progress — an activity that has been started, but not yet completed. Integrated logistics support — disciplined approach to activities necessary to a cause support considerations to be integrated into product design, b develop support arrangements that are consistently related to design and to each other, and c provide the necessary support at the beginning and during customer use at optimum cost.
Integration — the process of bringing people, activities and other things together to perform effectively. Internal rate of return IRR — discount rate at which the net present value of a future cash flow is zero. Inverted matrix — a project oriented organization structure that employs permanent specialists to support projects.
However, in some application areas it may have a narrower or more specific meaning. Issue — An immediate problem requiring resolution. If a risk see Risk does occur, it may turn into an issue or issues and be managed as an issue. Key events major events, the achievement of which that are deemed to be critical to the execution of the project. Key Event Schedule — See master schedule. Key performance indicators — measurable indicators used to report progress chosen to reflect the critical success factors of the project.
Labor rate variances — difference between planned labor rates and actual labor rates. Ladder — device for representing a set of overlapping activities in a network diagram.
PMO and Project Management Dictionary
The start and finish of each succeeding activity are linked only to the start and finish of the preceding activity by lead and lag activities, which consume only time. Lag — a In a network diagram, the minimum necessary lapse of time between the finish of one activity and the finish of an overlapping activity or b delay incurred between two specified activities. For example, in a finish-to-start dependency with a day lag, the successor activity cannot start until 10 days after the predecessor has finished.
Late dates — calculated in the backward pass of time analysis, late dates are the latest dates by which an activity can be allowed to start or finish. Latest event time — Latest time by which an event has to occur within the logical and imposed constraints of the network, without affecting the total project duration.
Katie Henderson, Huge Honking adj. Julie Bunnick, comments ; Too big in general. Normalcod, comments Honking in the tunnel idiom. The escalation that happens once more than one area of a design needs emphasis. This can happen with weight many pieces of text becoming boldsize everything is largeand color everything becomes a different color. Julie Meridian, comments Horsey adj. Norcalmod, commnets I Iconic adj.
You know you should like it. Todd Greco, Ziba Ideating v. Another fancy word for brainstorming. Mark Kawano, Storehouse Ideation n. Katie Henderson, Huge Immersive experience — n. Low hanging fruits on the design tree that sound impressive. Charles Samuels, comments In real time idiom. A solution that is developed on the fly without prior planning.
Dana Krieger, Minus-8 Industrial chic adj. Something made by wealthy artisans? Jesse Reed, Pentagram Infographic n. Carl Alviani, Ziba Innovation n. Not doing things in the same top-down bureaucratic way as you were doing them before. Deroy Peraza, Hyperakt Insight n. Team, Ammunition Group Intuitive adj. Based on the assumption that there are built in instincts in all human beings that provide the keys to a product experience that is easy and enjoyable. Examples of intuitive interactions are often in fact just familiar.
Dana Krieger, Minus-8 Invitational adj. A synonym for friendly. Team, Ammunition Group Iterate v. Team, Ammunition Group M Magical interaction n. Any design with magnets. Team, Ammunition Group Makai target consumer n. Chelsea Vandiver, Ziba Make it quick v. Find some designs that look good and copy-and-paste them together. Gabriella Potsa, comments Make it sexy v. Chelsea Vandiver, Ziba Marketer n. Jesse Reed, Pentagram Masculine adj. Any design with straight lines and angles. A dropdown menu with a ton of content.
Deroy Peraza, Hyperakt Merch together v. Make it all the same color. Jim Teal, comments Modern adj.