A History of The Spanish Armada
Kids learn about the biography and life of English explorer Sir Francis Drake. for: First Englishman to sail around the world and defeating the Spanish Armada. In November Elizabethan seaman Sir Francis Drake set out at and for becoming the first Englishman to circumnavigate the world. In , Drake was the vice admiral of the English fleet during the Spanish Armada. Francis Drake participated in some of the earliest English slaving voyages to via the Pacific and became the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe; the as second-in-command during the English victory over the Spanish Armada. When he died off the coast of Panama in , Sir Francis Drake was buried at.
The crew discovered that Mary had rotting timbers, so they burned the ship. Drake decided to remain the winter in San Julian before attempting the Strait of Magellan. Execution of Thomas Doughty Main article: Thomas Doughty explorer Bronze statue in Tavistock, in the parish of which he was born, by Joseph Boehm On his voyage to interfere with Spanish treasure fleets, Drake had several quarrels with his co-commander Thomas Doughty and on 3 Juneaccused him of witchcraft and charged him with mutiny and treason in a shipboard trial.
The main pieces of evidence against Doughty were the testimony of the ship's carpenter, Edward Bright, who after the trial was promoted to master of the ship Marigold, and Doughty's admission of telling Lord Burghleya vocal opponent of agitating the Spanish, of the intent of the voyage. Drake consented to his request of Communion and dined with him, of which Francis Fletcher had this strange account: And after this holy repast, they dined also at the same table together, as cheerfully, in sobriety, as ever in their lives they had done aforetime, each cheering up the other, and taking their leave, by drinking each to other, as if some journey only had been in hand.
Drake had Thomas Doughty beheaded on 2 July When the ship's chaplain Francis Fletcher in a sermon suggested that the woes of the voyage in January were connected to the unjust demise of Doughty, Drake chained the clergyman to a hatch cover and pronounced him excommunicated. A few weeks later September Drake made it to the Pacific, but violent storms destroyed one of the three ships, the Marigold captained by John Thomas in the strait and caused another, the Elizabeth captained by John Wynterto return to England, leaving only the Pelican.
After this passage, the Pelican was pushed south and discovered an island that Drake called Elizabeth Island. Captain Wynter ordered the collection of great amounts of bark — hence the scientific name. The first report of his discovery of an open channel south of Tierra del Fuego was written after the publication of the voyage of Willem Schouten and Jacob le Maire around Cape Horn in Some Spanish ships were captured, and Drake used their more accurate charts. Before reaching the coast of PeruDrake visited Mocha Islandwhere he was seriously injured by hostile Mapuche.
It would come to be called the Cacafuego. Drake gave chase and eventually captured the treasure ship, which proved his most profitable capture. Drake was naturally pleased at his good luck in capturing the galleon, and he showed it by dining with the captured ship's officers and gentleman passengers. He offloaded his captives a short time later, and gave each one gifts appropriate to their rank, as well as a letter of safe conduct.
Nova Albion Main article: New Albion Drake's landing in California, engraving published by Theodor de Bry After looting the Cacafuego, Drake turned north, hoping to meet another Spanish treasure ship coming south on its return from Manila to Acapulco.
Although he failed to find a treasure ship, Drake reputedly sailed as far north as the 38th parallel, landing on the coast of California on 17 June He found a good port, landed, repaired and restocked his vessels, then stayed for a time, keeping friendly relations with the Coast Miwok natives. Assertions that he left some of his men behind as an embryo "colony" are founded on the reduced number who were with him in the Moluccas. All first-hand records from the voyage, including logs, paintings and charts, were lost when Whitehall Palace burned in A bronze plaque inscribed with Drake's claim to the new lands — Drake's Plate of Brass — fitting the description in his account, was discovered in Marin CountyCalifornia but was later declared a hoax.
Across the Pacific and around Africa Drake left the Pacific coast, heading southwest to catch the winds that would carry his ship across the Pacific, and a few months later reached the Moluccasa group of islands in the western Pacific, in eastern modern-day Indonesia. While there, Golden Hind became caught on a reef and was almost lost. After the sailors waited three days for convenient tides and had dumped cargo, they freed the barque.
Befriending a sultan king of the Moluccas, Drake and his men became involved in some intrigues with the Portuguese there. He made multiple stops on his way toward the tip of Africa, eventually rounded the Cape of Good Hopeand reached Sierra Leone by 22 July The Queen's half-share of the cargo surpassed the rest of the crown's income for that entire year. Drake was hailed as the first Englishman to circumnavigate the Earth and the second such voyage arriving with at least one ship intact, after Elcano 's in Drake presented the Queen with a jewel token commemorating the circumnavigation.
Sir Francis Drake | Biography, Accomplishments, & Facts | gtfd.info
Taken as a prize off the Pacific coast of Mexico, it was made of enamelled gold and bore an African diamond and a ship with an ebony hull. On one side is a state portrait of Elizabeth by the miniaturist Nicholas Hilliardon the other a sardonyx cameo of double portrait busts, a regal woman and an African male.
The "Drake Jewel", as it is known today, is a rare documented survivor among sixteenth-century jewels; it is conserved at the Victoria and Albert MuseumLondon. Bronze plaque by Joseph Boehm, base of Drake statue, Tavistock. Sir Francis Drake with his new heraldic achievementwith motto: Sic Parvis Magna, translated literally: Argent, a wyvern wings displayed and tail nowed gules,  and the crest, a dexter arm Proper grasping a battle axe Sable, headed Argent.
The head of that family, also a distinguished sailor, Sir Bernard Drake d. Sable a fess wavy between two pole-stars [Arctic and Antarctic] argent; and for his crest, a ship on a globe under ruff, held by a cable with a hand out of the clouds; over it this motto, Auxilio Divino; underneath, Sic Parvis Magna; in the rigging whereof is hung up by the heels a wivern, gules, which was the arms of Sir Bernard Drake.
The full achievement is depicted in the form of a large coloured plaster overmantel in the Lifetimes Gallery at Buckland Abbey  Nevertheless, Drake continued to quarter his new arms with the wyvern gules. Argent, a wyvern wings displayed and tail nowed gules. Often abroad, there is little evidence to suggest he was active in Westminster, despite being a member of parliament on three occasions.Sir Francis Drake: The Villainous Hero (Pirate History Explained)
All but two ships of the expedition were lost when attacked by a Spanish squadron. The Spanish became a lifelong enemy for Drake and they in turn considered him a pirate.
In andDrake made two profitable trading voyages to the West Indies. Inhe commanded two vessels in a marauding expedition against Spanish ports in the Caribbean. He returned to England with a cargo of Spanish treasure and a reputation as a brilliant privateer. InDrake was secretly commissioned by Elizabeth I to set off on an expedition against the Spanish colonies on the American Pacific coast.
Grenville, Sir Richard
He sailed with five ships, but by the time he reached the Pacific Ocean in October only one was left, Drake's flagship the Pelican, renamed the Golden Hind. He was nothing if not ambitious, for his aim was to capture the important town of Nombre de Dios, Pan. Although Drake was wounded in the attack, which failed, he and his men managed to get away with a great deal of plunder by successfully attacking a silver-bearing mule train.
In the interval between these episodes, he crossed the Isthmus of Panama. Standing on a high ridge of land, he first saw the Pacificthat ocean hitherto barred to all but Spanish ships. Drake saw that the time was inauspicious and sailed with a small squadron to Ireland, where he served under the earl of Essex and took part in a notorious massacre in July Circumnavigation of the world In he was chosen as the leader of an expedition intended to pass around South America through the Strait of Magellan and to explore the coast that lay beyond.
The expedition was backed by the queen herself. Nothing could have suited Drake better. He had official approval to benefit himself and the queen, as well as to cause the maximum damage to the Spaniards. He set sail in December with five small ships, manned by fewer than men, and reached the Brazilian coast in the spring of His flagship, the Pelican, which Drake later renamed the Golden Hind or Hindeweighed only about tons.
It seemed little enough with which to undertake a venture into the domain of the most powerful monarch and empire in the world.
Sir Francis Drake (c.1540 - c.1596)
Upon arrival in South America, Drake alleged a plot by unreliable officers, and its supposed leader, Thomas Doughtywas tried and executed.
Drake was always a stern disciplinarian, and he clearly did not intend to continue the venture without making sure that all of his small company were loyal to him. Two of his smaller vessels, having served their purpose as store ships, were then abandoned after their provisions had been taken aboard the others, and on August 21,he entered the Strait of Magellan. It took 16 days to sail through, after which Drake had his second view of the Pacific Ocean—this time from the deck of an English ship.
He passed along the coast like a whirlwind, for the Spaniards were quite unguarded, having never known a hostile ship in their waters.