observations that relationship building and proactive classroom .. characteristics in teachers and their belief systems that that play a role in their motivation to . Also, implementers that display a non-authoritarian delivery style, strong group. Authoritative teaching is a classroom management style that When a teacher has a real relationship with their student, they know what that. Moreover, authoritative teachers demonstrated a more conscious choice indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material. . recent decades and where diametrically opposing traits – the values of Soviet.
The relationship between teaching styles and ESL has not been directly studied. But there is varying evidence that the teaching style of teachers affects some dimensions such as self-efficacy, academic self-image, school-related attitudes, achievements, engagement in school e. Accordingly, emphasising the importance of an appropriate teaching style can help better prevent ESL. For the purposes of this article, we mainly took scientific papers and some online scientific books into consideration.
A parenting style framework for teaching style in the school environment As mentioned, some researchers have investigated comparisons between parenting styles and teaching styles e. Based on her observations of parents interacting with preschool children, Baumrind highlighted two basic dimensions of parenting styles: Using combinations of these two parental behaviour dimensions, Baumrind recognised four parenting styles: Students in the class where the teacher applied the authoritative teaching style as categorised by observers made greater achievement gains than their peers who had permissive teachers.
They also showed more engagement in school work than their peers who had authoritarian teachers. Similar results were found by Wentzel Students whose teachers set high academic expectations a characteristic of authoritarian and authoritative but not permissive teaching styles obtained better grades and were more interested in school.
In contrast, students with teachers who were more critical and negative in their feedback a characteristic of authoritarian but not authoritative and permissive teaching styles had worse grades and were less interested in school Wentzel, Barnas observed her own teaching style teaching students at the university level during the progress of her career.
She perceived her teaching style as progressing from being permissive to authoritarian to authoritative. Her perception and student evaluation indicated that the authoritative teaching style was the most effective in that students were both prepared for class and participated enthusiastically.
There is also evidence that students prefer college teachers who possess characteristics consistent with the authoritative style, such as warmth and approachability e.
Bassett, Snyder, Rogers and Collins applied the parenting styles model to teachers in higher education. They reported the results of two studies in which university students described an actual professor for the current semester using a modified version of the Parental Authority Questionnaire Buri,which measures the extent to which a person displays the characteristics of the permissive, authoritarian and authoritative styles.
In both studies, students expected to receive better grades in a class with the teacher described as being higher on the authoritative style and lower on the authoritarian style.
Teaching Style and Classroom Management
Further, teachers described by students as higher on the authoritative style were perceived as setting higher achievement standards, fostering more interest in learning, being clearer, being more helpful, and being a better quality teacher overall.
Teachers who created this type of environment emphasised extrinsic reasons for learning, used authoritarian control and expected children to misbehave or cheat in exams.
On one hand, the teachers expressed a desire for student learning and high learning outcomes but, on the other, they had low expectations. Students whose classroom environment was supportive with authoritative characteristics expressed a less negative view on learning and knowledge than students who were in classes with a predominantly non-supportive or ambiguous classroom environment.
What is Authoritative Teaching? - Jade Rivera
To sum up, like parents, teachers also create contexts in which students develop social and academic competencies. Both outcomes have also been recognised as preventive factors for ESL e. Research shows that ESL is the outcome of a long process of disengagement with measurable indicators that are present already in the early grades of schooling e. Researchers view engagement as a multidimensional construct, although many studies investigate only one dimension.
Fredericks, Blumenfeld and Paris classified 44 engagement studies within behavioural, emotional and cognitive categories. Behavioural engagement is defined as student participation in academic, social and extracurricular activities. Students show emotional engagement when they have positive attitudes and reactions to school, teachers, learning and peers.AUTHORITATIVE TEACHING
Research using this model has suggested that all three types of engagement cover different aspects of the student experience important for school success and personal development Blumenfeld et al.
Students who show a stable level of school engagement over the course of their schooling are less likely to leave the school before completing it Janosz et al. The lack of attendance is a sign of a general disengagement from school, ultimately leading to ESL Jimerson et al. However, it is important to note that early school leavers are a heterogeneous group and there is a variety of reasons why they leave school.
The analyses included 99 studies, referring to students from preschool to high school. Separate analyses were conducted for positive relationships and engagement, negative relationships and engagement, positive relationships and achievement, and negative relationships and achievement. The results of the meta-analysis show that associations of both positive and negative relationships with engagement were medium to large, whereas associations with achievement were small to medium.
When supported and nurtured in the classroom, these motivational resources provide students with the motivational foundation they need to become highly engaged in school and committed to graduating and not at risk for ESL Vallerand et al. According to self-determination theory, students become engaged in school-related activity when school activities are interesting, relevant to their everyday lives, and affirm and value their competencies.
Teaching style impact on ESL Different characteristics of the authoritative teaching style such as warmth, openness, support, supervision etc.
What is Authoritative Teaching?
For example, Fallu and Janosz showed that warm relationships with teachers decreased the ESL risk of at-risk students whereas conflictual relationships had negative consequences for all students in the classroom also for students not at risk for ESL. Crosnoe, Kirkpatrick, Johnson and ElderMurray and Malgrem as well as Pianta and Stuhlman showed that a positive teacher-student relationship acts as a factor promoting school achievement which has also been proved to be a preventive factor for ESL e.
In other words, the authoritative teaching style helps establish a positive student-teacher relationship which has been shown as a protective factor against ESL. Different studies show e. Besides writing reflections on a specific classroom situation, teachers can also help themselves develop their teaching style by keeping a diary about their work and then analysing it to reflect on their professional development Loughran, Videotaping own lessons from time to time also helps teachers become aware of some behaviours that may cause unwanted student reactions in the classroom.
It also helps to ask a colleague teacher or the head teacher to observe a lesson and discuss their observations with you Loughran, These dimensions correspond with the authoritative parenting style, according to Baumrind What is important for teachers to know is that they can help their students develop the right motivation to finish their educational programme. Early prospective studies of the high school dropout.
School Psychology Quarterly, 16 4 Differentiating characteristics of high school graduates, dropouts, and nongraduates. The Journal of Educational Research, 82 6— Applying developmental psychology to the classroom.
Teaching Psychology, 27, — Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30 125— Student evaluations of college professors: Are female and male professors rated differently?
Journal of Educational Psychology, 79 3 Predictors of early high school dropout: A test of five theories. Journal of Educational Psychology, 3, — Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43— Current patterns of parental authority.
Teaching style beliefs among US and Israeli faculty. Journal of Dental Education, 70 8— Teaching styles and pupil progress. American Educational Research Journal, 15, — School engagement of inner-city students during middle childhood. Rethinking contexts and diversity as resources. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57 1— Assessing teaching style in adult education: Lifelong Learning, 8 87—11, Identifying your teaching style.
A Guide for Effective Instruction, 3, 75— Intergenerational bonding in school: The behavioral and contextual correlates of student-teacher relationships. Sociology of Education, 77 160— Parenting style as context: Psychological Bulletin, 3 Characteristics of the rewarder and intrinsic motivation of the rewardee. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 1— Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior.
The support of autonomy and the control of behavior. An authoritative teacher does her best to stay somewhere in the middle — remaining flexible and kind while communicating why she has high standards for her students.
This is no easy task: I gently course correct, trying not to be too hard on my gifted, perfectionistic self, and do better. An authoritative teacher is warm to her students because she knows the challenges of being gifted. Living with overexcitabilities and perfectionistic tendencies can easily lead a child to become his or her own harshest critic. Gifted children spend a lot of time feeling misunderstood, mainly because they are.
Or they are judged as overly sensitive and bratty.
The relationship between teachers’ teaching styles, students’ engagement in school and ESL
I offer lots of hugs to my students, and I respond with an accepting smile when those hugs are turned down. I request the best from my students so they may develop the tools they need for a fulfilled, meaningful life. A lack of expectation for a gifted learner communicates that it is okay for the child to give in to his or her sensitivities and perfectionistic tendencies and not try.
This same lack of expectation can be misinterpreted as a demand for blind production of straight-A work.