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Jokes related to office humor, job jokes, boss jokes, employee jokes, office jokes and many more. A lawyer runs a stop sign and gets pulled over by a sheriff. May 27, A theory about the nature of law, as opposed to critical theories of law, The philosophical origins of legal positivism are much earlier, though, probably in the political . are closely related, they differ on the grounds of this relationship. .. Legal practice, as Dworkin puts it, is not “a grotesque joke” (Dworkin. Jun 5, That, friend, is Poe's Law: On the internet, it's impossible to tell who is joking. Take, for example, 4chan's infamous /pol/ (short for "politically “When social networks used to be bounded by interests, the joke Nice Things: Mapping the Relationship Between Online Trolling and Most Popular. science.
Aspirants to office in the s have been especially noteworthy for making this claim. What is interesting to note is that more often than not these candidates and the individuals they work with or appoint to office are themselves insiders, as the recent cabinet appointments suggest.
Distribution of Political Power Having seen how the governing elite derives its strength, it is important to consider how this power is exercised in the political arena. What roles do the three parts of the pyramid--the elite, the middle level, and the masses--play in American politics? With its leaves gone its outline is clearly visible. At the bottom, of course, is the trunk--cut it and the whole tree topples.
Higher up three or four main branches support lesser branches, which in turn support still smaller ones until one comes to the twigs at the edges. Cutting the twigs does not change the tree very much. As one saws off branches lower down, however, the shape--and possibly the existence of the tree--is affected. In other words, to determine the direction and extent of growth of the tree, one cannot simply prune off a few boughs at the top but has to cut main limbs or the trunk.
Public policies can be thought of in the same way. There is a hierarchy among them in the sense that some corresponding to the trunk and main branches support others. Trunk decisions represent basic choices--whether or not welfare the federal budget must be balanced in seven years, for example--that, once decided, necessitate making lesser choices--cutting food stamps or Aid to Families with Dependent Children. Whoever makes the trunk decisions sets the agenda for subsequent debates about secondary or branch and twig policies.
Let's return to an issue, the B-1 controversy, raised in the essay on pluralism. As important as it seemed, the B-1 in the eyes of power elite theorists is only a twig. In order to appreciate their contention, ask why the United States needs bombers in the first place.
Why not rely on land-based missiles and submarines to deter the Soviet Union? The answer lies in a prior decision to maintain a "triad," a nuclear retaliatory force consisting of land-based missiles, submarines, and bombers. Having three separate weapons systems, American defense planners concluded, provides an extra margin of safety in the event of a confrontation with the Russians.
Do we need three types, or could we get along with two? This is an important question--far more important than whether we develop a new bomber or keep an old one--and who decides it structures the debate on this and a host of other issues. Suppose, for a moment, the United States had decided that bombers were unnecessary. The B-1 debate would then be moot and resources allocated to it could be devoted to other purposes such as conventional arms or schools or tax reductions.
Yet the triad is itself only a branch policy; it rests on an even more fundamental policy, containment.
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Some urged a conciliatory approach that would recognize Russia's legitimate security concerns. Others took a harder line. Fearing the spread of international communism, they advocated the use of diplomatic, economic, and especially military means to contain what they perceived to be inexorable Soviet expansionism.
The first alternative emphasized cooperation, the second containment; the first implied relatively modest national security efforts, the second enormous expenditures for arms and foreign aid. Ultimately the United States adopted the strategy of containment, which has been the backbone of American foreign policy since Containment represents a trunk decision, while most other defense policies such as the triad or the B-1 are either branches or twigs.
Containing the Russians put us on a long and arduous path over which we trod for nearly half a century.
National defense swallowed a huge portion of the federal budget; it called for the maintenance of an enormous peacetime army; it led us into alliances with nations in the farthest corners of the globe, including some of the most corrupt and dictatorial regimes on earth; it demanded massive military aid programs; it consumed the talents of our scientific establishment and the attention of our national leaders.
In short, containment, unlike the B-1, was no ordinary policy but a fundamental commitment of American resources and energies. Who decides trunk decisions like these? According to the power elite theory, the top of the pyramid usually does.
Or it has greatest influence on their formation. The middle levels of government the Congress, the courts, the states worry mainly about how best to implement them.
This seems to have been the case in the period after World War II when containment first emerged. Most of the key decisions were made behind closed doors in the White House, the State Department, and the Pentagon.
A few selected senators were involved primarily to enlist their support rather than involve them in the actual decision-making processbut containment was never more than a fleeting part of national party and electoral politics.
Instead, once the policy had been formulated at the top it was sold to the public.
The Middle Level of Politics. Where does this put the workaday politicians, the inhabitants of the middle level of politics? Sadly, the elite school reports, their influence has largely dissipated over the years, leaving them with only the outer limbs and twigs to manage.
It is certainly true that government in the middle is colorful and noisy and attracts the attention of the popular press. But for the most part its activities hide an important point: Far from competing with the power elite, professional politicians today have lost their ability to control the nation's destiny.
Elite theorists think that most of the participants in the middle are actually motivated by rather selfish and parochial interests. Taking a short-run view of problems, elected officials have become political entrepreneurs who use television and advertising gimmicks to sell themselves to an increasingly cynical public.
In their hands policy becomes a means to an end, getting reelected, rather than an end in itself. Most important, they have lost the will and capacity to grapple with national and international issues. They seem all too eager to leave these questions to presidents and their inner circles.
Admittedly, a few senators and representatives participate in these deliberations, but most do not. And neither do state and local officials. Thus, instead of debating the merits of containment or the triad, they are content to argue about how much of the B-1 will be built in their own hometowns. Forty years ago, C. Wright Mills lamented on this state of affairs: More and more of the fundamental issues never come to any point of decision before the Congress, or before its most powerful committees, much less before the electorate in campaigns When fundamental issues do come up for Congressional debate, they are likely to be so structured as to limit consideration, and even to be stalemated rather than resolved.
Today Congress expends enormous energy debating how to balance the budget in seven years. They leave largely unanswered the prior question of why it has to be brought into balance in such a relatively short time. This matter is worth noting because many economist agree that public spending has to be controlled but do not necessarily believe that the national budget has to be balanced year in and year out or that the national debt has to be paid off immediately.
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See the debt and deficit essays for more on myths and realities of public finances. In contrast to pluralism, elite theory contends that the game of checks and balances and countervailing influence is played for relatively small stakes. Because ordinary politicians are excluded from the higher circles, where fundamental choices are decided, the agenda is predetermined for them.
They are free to deal with issues that the power elite finds non-threatening; the big questions the elite saves for itself. What disturbs power elite theorists most, however, is the demise of the public as an independent force in civic affairs. Instead of initiating policy, or even controlling those who govern them, men and women in America have become passive spectators, cheering the heroes and booing the villains, but taking little or no direct part in the action.
Citizens have become increasingly alienated and estranged from politics as can be seen in the sharp decline in electoral participation over the last several decades. As a result, the control of their destinies has fallen into the lap of the power elite. Today, of course, it is hard to deny the apathy and disinterest among average citizens. But whereas pluralists view this passivity as understandable people are too preoccupied with other concerns to take part in public affairsif not beneficial too many individuals placing demands on government can clog the systemelite theorists see it as the inevitable consequence of important decisions being made at the highest levels.
People lose interest to the degree that they lose control. Moreover, in spite of Independence Day platitudes about good citizenship, the elite does not really encourage mass participation. Such involvement would make its control too uncertain.
The containment strategy adopted after World War II illustrates this point. As noted previously, the initial policies, which were developed largely behind the scenes, called for drastic changes in the way the United States conducted foreign affairs. In the years after the United States fought a major war in Korea and began spending billions and billions of dollars at home and overseas for national security.
In order to obtain public approval for these undertakings, the Truman administration mounted a huge public relations campaign to create the needed support. As it and subsequent administrations emphasized the seriousness of the threat, the people were led to believe that they faced a ruthless enemy determined to take over the world by subversion if possible and by force if necessary.Relationship between Political Science And History/B.A. part 1/ first semester
Yet they had almost no opportunity to hear a full debate between the proponents of containment and alternative policies. I want you both to know that the envelope I placed in the coffin contained the full amount. He was told the loan would be granted if he could prove satisfactory title to a parcel of property being offered as collateral.
The title to the property dated back towhich took the lawyer three months to track down. After sending the information to the FHA, he received the following reply actual letter: Annoyed, the lawyer responded as follows actual letter: When We Were Kids Take a trip down memory lane at relive the good old days!
His arm is not himself, and I fail to see how you can punish the whole individual for an offense committed by his limb. He can accompany it or not, as he chooses. With his lawyer's assistance he detached his artificial limb, laid it on the bench, and walked out.
Dennis Newton was on trial for the armed robbery of a convenience store in a district court when he fired his lawyer. Assistant district attorney Larry Jones said Newton, 47, was doing a fair job of defending himself until the store manager testified that Newton was the robber. Newton jumped up, accused the woman of lying and then said, "I should of blown your expletive head off.
A lawyer is a person who writes a 10,word document and calls it a "brief. Lawyer Jokes 66 At light hearted look at those pillars of society and leaders in the field of ethics! Bar Jokes A collection of some of the finest bar jokes, and drinking humor anywhere on the web.
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