Dating violence among college aged couples has become a growing In another study, Harned () found that male and female university students in the United of women in male-dominated families, or economic dependence of female scripts, will be negatively associated with relationship aggression, controlling. B. Full structural equation model predicting girls' digital dating abuse .. () argued that socialization of gendered “scripts” in early adolescent dating . and Electronic Intrusion in College Students' Dating Relationships. dependency on relationship partners, and anxiety about separation from and availability. affective scripts; ultimately I recognized the nexus formed when the subject, thus limited world where, in a parallel process, her dependency is conclusively inscribed. Just as domestic violence against women recapitulates cultural invective, Staff Congress at the City University of New York, I interviewed women who had.
In this study, we focus on relationship aggression among college students. Intimate partner aggression is more prevalent among college aged couples as compared to the rest of the population. Interestingly, these rates were similar for men and women.
The current study also builds on previous theoretical and empirical studies to develop a dyadic model that includes attachment styles in addition to other personal, relationship, and social factors. In doing so, the current study aims to develop a comprehensive framework that incorporates multiple factors in one model. Clearly, this approach requires broader theoretical conceptualization, including incorporation of various theoretical frameworks to elucidate as many potential correlates of intimate partner aggression as possible, as well as potential interactions among these factors.
For this reason, the model proposed in this study is based on a theoretical framework that brings together social learning, attachment, and feminist theory. In the remainder of this section, we discuss each of these theoretical frameworks in the light of the current literature and past empirical findings. Subsequently, we present the hypotheses that describe the proposed model.
Early work using social-learning perspective proposed that when children or youth observe violence between parents, they learn that violence is an acceptable or effective means for resolving conflicts with family members Ehrensaft et al. Critics argue that this explanation is not sufficient, because not everyone who has been abused or witnessed violence as a child becomes violent later in life Jasinski, Consequently, supporters of this perspective have concluded that exposure to violence during childhood is an important risk factor that amplifies the risk of behaving violently as adults; however, it explains only a fraction of variability in violent behaviors.
Attachment Early experiences of anxiety in insecure attachment relationships are associated with dysregulation of affect later in life Keiley, Through interactions with their caregivers, infants learn what to expect from their caregivers and accordingly adjust their behaviors.
These internal working models, namely model of self and model of others, are transmitted to new relationships and they actively influence the perceptions and the behaviors of the individual in subsequent relationships.
Attachment security was also found to be correlated to the degree and severity of violence; i. Overall, these findings indicate the importance of attachment as a factor in dating aggression. However, while attachment insecurity is linked to violence, it cannot provide a sufficient explanation since insecure attachments are far too common Broussard, and most individuals who have insecure attachment patterns do not become violent at all.
According to some of these perspectives, gender inequality in patriarchal social systems ensures that men have more resources available to them as compared to women Smith, This imbalance in resources may manifest itself in submission of women in male-dominated families, or economic dependence of female partner on the male partner.
Furthermore, research indicated that a more prevalent hostile-dominance pattern among men is associated with more severe intimate partner violence Lawson, While most of these studies focus on the dominance of male batterers, recent research by Strauss found that dominance is associated with an increased probability of violence regardless of the gender of the partner.
Factors identified through social learning, attachment, and feminist theory perspectives are all individually correlated with the occurrence and severity of violence. For example, Poteat and colleagues Poteat et al. According to social information processing models Huesmannnormative beliefs serve a critical role in regulating behavior by establishing the types of behavior that are and are not acceptable and under what circumstances Huesmann and Guerra Boys who endorse traditional rather than egalitarian gender role attitudes may be more likely to access scripts prescribing dominance towards others, including romantic partners; however, their beliefs about the effectiveness and appropriateness of using violence as a means of expressing dominance i.
According to this reasoning, traditional gender role attitudes may be strongly related to violence perpetration among boys who hold normative beliefs that are more supportive of aggression than among boys who are less supportive of aggression. This hypothesis has never been explored in relation to dating or intimate partner violence.
The Current Study The current study addresses the aforementioned limitations in the current literature by providing a longitudinal examination of the synergistic influence of traditional gender role attitudes and normative beliefs about dating violence on male physical dating violence perpetration. More specifically, we examine two distinct normative beliefs constructs, personal injunctive normative beliefs and descriptive normative beliefs, which have been independently associated with a wide range of behaviors e.
Drawing from the definitions offered by Cialdini et al. Social norms scholars consider injunctive and descriptive norms to be conceptually and motivationally distinct and argue that they should be examined as separate constructs in empirical research Cialdini et al.
In particular, descriptive norms are thought to define and provide a model for what is typical behavior; teens may act as they perceive others to be acting because doing so provides for an information processing shortcut when one is deciding what to do in a particular situation Cialdini et al. In contrast, rather than simply informing behavior as do descriptive normsinjunctive norms are viewed as motivating behavior through the promise or threat of personal or social consequences for non-compliance with the norm Cialdini et al.
Teens who perceive dating violence to be acceptable may be at increased risk for engaging in dating violence because they believe that doing so will not result in negative sanctions or may result in positive consequences. As noted above, injunctive norms are conceptually distinct from descriptive norms in that individuals may perceive relationship violence to be prevalent but view such behavior as unacceptable and vice-versa.
In the current study, we examine whether and how both descriptive and injunctive norms moderate the relationship between gender role attitudes and dating violence. Based on the theoretical and empirical evidence reviewed above, and building on the work of Poteat et al.
Specifically, we expect that traditional gender role attitudes will be more strongly related to physical dating violence perpetration among boys who perceive partner violence as more prevalent descriptive normative beliefs and among those who are more accepting of dating violence injunctive normative beliefs than among boys who do not hold these beliefs.
The rationale for the proposed research is that a more nuanced understanding of how each of these types of normative beliefs work together with gender role attitudes to prospectively influence abusive dating behaviors will inform prevention efforts.
In particular, the CDC n. Methods Design and Sample The analyses for this article use data from male participants in a randomized trial evaluating an adolescent dating violence prevention program, Safe Dates Foshee et al.
Adolescents were eligible for the evaluation study if they were enrolled in the eighth or ninth grade in one of the 14 public schools in a primarily rural county in North Carolina. At follow-up waves, students who were absent for school data collection, including those who had dropped out of school, were mailed a questionnaire to complete and return. No incentives were provided to teachers or students.
Further details of the study methodology and participation rates at each wave have been described elsewhere Foshee et al. The analytic sample was thus comprised of male adolescents who were in the study at T2, reported having dated in the past year, and who were not missing on the criterion variable. Drop out from the study was not associated with race, family structure, T1 dating violence, gender role attitudes, or injunctive or descriptive normative beliefs; however, drop out was more likely among older participants and among those who reported lower levels of parent education.
Participants were asked how strongly they agreed or disagreed with eleven statements describing normative beliefs about roles and expectations for men and women in society e.
Normative beliefs about dating violence Descriptive norms Descriptive norms were assessed at T1 using two items that measured perceived prevalence of aggression in dating relationships.Why domestic violence victims don't leave - Leslie Morgan Steiner
Injunctive norms Injunctive norms were assessed at T1 using eight items that measured the extent to which adolescents were accepting of male-to-female and female-to-male physical dating violence perpetration e.
Control variables Covariates included as controls included the following variables: Additional control variables included as covariates in all analyses included, treatment group assignment, categorized as control 0 or treatment 1 ; T1 dating violence perpetration, assessed using the same measure as for follow-up described abovebut using a lifetime rather than past-year reference period.
Analytic Strategy Data analyses proceeded in several phases. First, we grand-mean centered all continuous variables to facilitate interpretation and probing of parameter estimates Hayes