The Lewis Model – Dimensions of Behaviour | Cross Culture
(toll free) | [email protected] The summary: a surprisingly helpful generalization of cultural preferences is that people raised in colder regions of the world–like Canada, Northern U.S.A., Israel–tend towards one side of a broad cultural spectrum (task orientation, direct communication. The globalisation of world business in the last 5 decades has heralded in collectivism, relationship-orientation, situational truth, dislike of officialdom, How does this information help training officers, headhunters or others. In anthropology, High-context culture and low-context culture is a measure of how explicit the Therefore, it is necessary for more explicit information to be included in the message so it is not misinterpreted. Not all Since all sets of cultures differ, especially from a global standpoint where language also creates a barrier for.
Lewis, after visiting countries and working in more than 20 of them, came to the conclusion that humans can be divided into 3 clear categories, based not on nationality or religion but on BEHAVIOUR. He named his typologies Linear-active, Multi-active and Reactive. Lewis considered that previous cross-culturalists, in accumulating the multiplicity of dimensions listed in the preceding paragraph, ran the risk of creating confusion for those who sought clarity and succinctness. He named this behavioural category Reactive, thereby creating a model that is essentially tripartite and cites the following characteristics: The Linear-active group is easily identified.
The Reactive group is located in all major countries in Asia, except the Indian sub-continent, which is hybrid. The Multi-actives are more scattered: Though these cultures are wildly diverse, geographically and in their religions, beliefs and values, they can be categorised as a group, as behaviourally they follow the same pattern with the following traits and commonalities: It is a question of which one is dominant.
Many individuals deviate from the national type in a work situation e. The Lewis Model is based on data drawn from 50, executives taking residential courses and more thanonline questionnaires to 68 different nationalities and has produced the following tripartite comparison according to country.
How does this information help training officers, headhunters or others engaged in the placement of new recruits in the company structure? It indicates not only how much affinity their behaviour has to that of other countries but also shows their similarity to or deviation from their own national norm, as well as their compatibility with other people tested.
This is particularly useful if members of a proposed team are tested simultaneously. The successful candidate in red was in fact an Indian national.
High-context and low-context cultures - Wikipedia
The design of the questionnaire is based on business situations. People from the deal-focused culture, think that the other culture is often vague and therefore unreliable and not decisive enough. By being aware of this difference in advance, deal-focused people can prepare by spending more time on negotiation and not expecting results right away.
Relationship-focused would do well to indicate how important it is for them to have time to consider an offer to avoid annoying the other party. Formal cultures versus informal cultures In formal cultures, people prefer a respectful and honourable communication style. Differences in hierarchical position and status are considered very important and people are valued accordingly. Academic titles and royal ranks command respect.
Informal cultures are not being disrespectful, but do not put as much stock in difference in status and position. Everybody is equal and everyone has the chance or opportunity to advance. These opposites can also experience conflict, for instance when a person from an informal culture gets too friendly and pats the CEO of a multinational from a formal culture on the back.
Painful situations like that can be avoided by gathering knowledge beforehand, preventing it from being an obstacle to further business. Arriving late is not the done thing and missing deadlines or meetings running late is unthinkable.
Very different are the countries with a fluid attitude to time. People and interpersonal relations are considered more important than time, making deadlines or sticking to schedules. Conflicts about time are unpleasant and often difficult to solve. Schedule overruns caused by the other party undermine trust.
On the other hand, people from a fluid-time culture can be very surprised by a strong reaction to schedule overruns by the other party. They do their best to avoid awkward silences and there is little consideration for personal space during conversations; people stand close together, often touch each other and look each other in the eyes.
Navigating Cultural Differences Pt. 2 – Task vs. Relationship Orientation
People in reserved cultures tend to speak more calmly. General and continuous eye contact is avoided and they use little if any hand and arm gestures.
- High-context and low-context cultures
- Patterns of Cross Cultural Business Behavior
- The Lewis Model – Dimensions of Behaviour
This is characteristic of Southeast Asia and Northern Europe. This is often expressed in non-verbal ways when the reserved party is keeping their distance or literally taking a step back. Acting modestly can make it easier to do business and come to an agreement. Cultural groups To distinguish between cultures, Gesteland has divided the most important countries in eight groups that have the characteristics of the dimensions mentioned earlier: Group 1 — India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand, The Philippines These countries are relationship-focused, formal in the way they interact, fluid when it comes to time and reserved.
Group 2 — Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore These countries are relationship-focused, formal in the way they interact, rigid when it comes to time and reserved. Group 3 — Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Greece, Brazil, Mexico These countries are relationship-focused, formal in the way they interact, fluid when it comes to time and expressive. Group 4 — Russia, Poland, Romania These countries are relationship-focused, formal in the way they interact, fluid when it comes to time and expressive.
Group 5 — France, Belgium, Italy, Spain, Hungary These countries are deal-focused, formal in the way they interact, rigid when it comes to time and expressive. Group 6 — Baltic states These countries are deal-focused, formal in the way they interact, rigid when it comes to time and reserved. Group 7 — Great Britain, Denmark, Finland, Russia, The Netherlands, Czech Republic These countries are deal-focused, formal in the way they interact, rigid when it comes to time and reserved.
Group 8 — Australia, Canada, United States These countries are deal-focused, informal in the way they interact, rigid when it comes to time and expressive. The cultural dimensions provide insight into the diversity and similarities between the different cultures. A company should be mindful of the characteristics and similarities a particular country has when it wants to do business with an organisation from that culture.
The knowledge and skills gained from this research provides an opportunity to select relevant information about the culture in question and negotiate in an appropriate manner. How do you deal with Cross Cultural Business Behavior?