Study refutes link between restroom crime and transgender access - The Boston Globe
“What gets measured gets done. If you don't measure results, you can't tell success from failure. If you can't see success, you can't reward it. If you can't reward. As rural schools are made safer, rural children will receive the to be done on improving community relations in rural areas .. specific causes and consequences of crime for any individual community are likely to be unique, 2 Rural Development Framework, , Available at gtfd.info gtfd.info The two accused were convicted of attempted murder and sentenced to prison terms of 19 . The results obtained are set out in Table 3 below.
Prior to that time, select municipalities had adopted local ordinances that had a similar effect: And right as we were wrapping up our research, Massachusetts passed the statewide law. The activists who want to repeal the law say it could be abused by male predators and threaten privacy and safety of women and girls.
But until now there has been no empirical data to bolster or negate their concerns. To establish the scope of the issue, researchers used public records requests to obtain police incident reports and compare bathroom crime data in cities with antidiscrimination laws — Medford, Melrose, and Newton — with comparable towns that lacked them. They paired each city with communities that were comparable based on a host of data, including crime and population demographics, poverty, and voting trends.
Then, rather than looking at numbers alone, the researchers compared the differences in each locality over time to judge whether a change in bathroom crime could be attributable to the enactment of a transgender accommodation law.
The study notes its limitations — largely on the quality of the data. Recommendation 2—Communities should provide an ample array of program opportunities that appeal to and meet the needs of diverse youth, and should do so through local entities that can coordinate such work across the entire community.
Particular attention should be placed on programs for disadvantaged and underserved youth. Recommendation 3—To increase the likelihood that an ample array of program opportunities will be available, communities should put in place some locally appropriate mechanism for monitoring the availability, accessability, and quality of programs for youth in their community.
Recommendation 4—Private and public funders should provide the resources needed at the community level to develop and support community-wide programming that is orderly, coordinated, and evaluated in reasonable ways. In addition to support at the community level, this is likely to involve support for intermediary organizations and collaborative teams that include researchers, practitioners, funders, and policy makers. Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Some are interested in learning about the effectiveness of specific details in a program; others about the effects of a given program; others about the overall effect of a set of programs together; and others about the effects of related kinds of programs.
Research, program evaluation, and social indicator data can play a significant role in answering such questions, improving the design and delivery of programs, and thereby, improving the well-being and future success of young people. Research The committee first reviewed research on both adolescent development and the features of positive developmental settings that support it.
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In both cases, the research base is just becoming comprehensive enough to allow for tentative conclusions about the individual assets that characterize positive development and features of settings that support it. The committee used a variety of criteria to suggest the tentative lists of both important individual-level assets and features of settings that support positive development outlined in Box ES-1 and Table ES These suggestions are based on scientific evidence from both short- and long-term experimental and observational studies, one-time large-scale survey studies, and longitudinal survey studies reviewed by the committee.
However, much more comprehensive work is needed. Conclusions More comprehensive longitudinal and experimental research, that either builds on current efforts or involves new efforts, is needed on a wider range of populations that follows children and adolescents well into adulthood in order to understand which assets are most important to adolescent development and which patterns of assets are linked to particular types of successful adult transitions in various cultural contexts.
Research on a diverse group of adolescents followed well into adulthood is needed to understand which patterns of assets best predict successful adult transitions in various cultural contexts and how these assets work together in supporting both current and future well-being and success. Longitudinal research meets these objectives by collecting extensive psychological, social, and contextual information on the same individuals at different points in time.
More experimental research that focuses on changing specific assets and characteristics of settings assumed to affect other assets is also needed in order to test causal hypotheses more sensitively. Despite its limitations, research in all settings in the lives of adolescents—families, schools, and communities—is yielding consistent evidence that there are specific features of settings that support positive youth development and that these features can be incorporated into community programs.
Community programs have the potential to provide opportunities for youth to acquire personal and social assets and have important experiences that may be missing or are in short supply in the other settings of their lives. Whether they are packaged as teen pregnancy prevention programs, mental health programs, or youth development programs, such programs can lead to positive outcomes for youth.
There is limited research, however, measuring the impact of these experiences on the development of young people and therefore limited evidence on why program effects are or are not obtained. Few researchers have applied the critical standards of science to evaluate which features of community programs influence development, which processes within each activity are related to these outcomes, and which combinations of features are best for which outcomes.
RDP White Paper
Thus, there is very little research that will help organizations decide how they should tailor program activities to the needs of individual youth and diverse cultural groups. Consequently, research is needed to sharpen the conceptualization of features of community programs and to explore whether other key features should be added to the list.
It should also focus on how to incorporate these features into community programs and on how to maintain them once they are in place. Finally, such research should identify program strategies, resource needs, and approaches to staff training and retention that can cultivate and support the features of positive developmental settings in community programs for youth.
Very few integrated programs have received the kind of comprehensive experimental evaluation necessary to make a firm recommendation about replicating the program in its entirety across the country.
However, there is sufficient evidence from a variety of sources to make recommendations about some fundamental principles of supportive developmental settings and some specific aspects of programs that can be used to design community programs for youth. These are captured by the features of supportive settings outlined in Table ES Recommendation 5—Federal agencies that fund research on adolescent health, development, and well-being, such as the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Justice, and the Department of Education, should build into their portfolios new or more comprehensive longitudinal and experimental research on the personal and social assets needed to promote the healthy development and well-being of adolescents and to promote the successful transition from childhood through adolescence and into adulthood.
Recommendation 6—Public and private funders should support research on whether the features of positive developmental settings identified in this report are the most important features of community programs for youth.
This research should encourage program design and implementation that meets the diverse needs of an increasingly heterogeneous population of youth. Program evaluation can also help funders and policy makers make informed choices about which programs to fund for which groups of youth. The desire to conduct high-quality evaluation can help program staff clarify their objectives and decide which types of evidence will be most useful in determining if these objectives have been met.
Ongoing program study and evaluation can also be used by program staff, program participants, and funders to track program objectives; this is typically done by establishing a system for ongoing data collection that measures the extent to which various aspects of the programs are being delivered, how are they delivered, who is providing these services, and who is receiving them. Such information can provide useful information to program staff to help them make changes to improve program effectiveness.
Finally, program evaluation can test both new and very well developed program designs by assessing the immediate, observable results of the program outcomes and benefits associated with participation in the program. Such summative evaluation can be done in conjunction with strong theory-based evaluation or as a more preliminary assessment of the potential usefulness of novel programs and quite complex social experiments in which there is no well-specified theory of change. However, so far they have not benefited all our people.
A process of reconstruction is proposed to ensure that these strengths now benefit everyone 1. There are still very clear racial and gender inequalities in ownership, employment and skills. Past industrial policies were an important factor in developing industry, but were also accompanied by repressive labour practices, neglect of training, isolation from the world economy and excessive concentration of economic power.
The result is a low level of investment in research and development, low and inappropriate skill levels, high costs, low productivity and declining employment. Other barriers include falling rates of return, capital outflows, low exports and high import propensity, and stagnating productivity.
Appropriate tax reforms and a review of exchange controls along with fiscal discipline are all being addressed in order to facilitate growth. Past policies of labour exploitation and repression will be redressed and the imbalances of power between employers and workers corrected. The basic rights to organise and to strike will be entrenched. Negotiations and participative structures at national, industry and workplace level will be created to ensure that labour plays an effective role in the reconstruction and development of our country.
Negotiations have already commenced on reforms in collective bargaining and in the broader labour market to facilitate this.
Our economy must adjust to these pressures if we are to sustain economic growth and continue to develop a large domestic manufacturing sector that makes greater use of our own raw materials and minerals. Such a path would benefit nobody in the long run. If South Africa attempted to dominate its neighbours, it would restrict their growth, reducing their potential as markets, worsening their unemployment and causing increased migration to South Africa.
If it seeks mutual cooperation, it can develop a large, stable market offering stable employment and common labour standards in all areas. In the case of our neighbours, they were pressured into implementing programmes with adverse effects on employment and standards of living.
It is essential that we combine to develop an effective growth and development strategy for all southern African countries. In linking democracy, development and a people-centred approach to government, we are paving the way for a new democratic order. The establishment of a single Public Service in South Africa enjoying equitable and common conditions of service is a major challenge facing the economy and the GNU. Important progress has already been made in this regard. Increasing the efficiency and productivity, improving management and reducing the size of the civil service are crucial in redirecting resources to the RDP priorities.
This White Paper deals mainly with proposals for coordinating and planning the implementation of the RDP. It is the duty of the Government to manage this transformation.Indian Penal Code 1860 Lecture
This is being done by the development of key medium and long-term programmes which incorporate the basic aims of the RDP and which allow for effective management. These programmes have been launched through Presidential Projects announced recently by the President in his speech opening the debate on the President's Budget Vote. The projects kick-start the implementation of the RDP Programmes and provide a useful learning experience to improve the implementation strategies in a dynamic manner.
Next, an overview of government economic policies is provided to illustrate the enabling environment that will link growth, reconstruction and development Chapter Three.
The reorganisation of the public sector, particularly the Public Service and other government personnel, is then taken up Chapter Five. Reorganisation can be facilitated through the adoption of rigorous planning frameworks Chapter Six which in relation to civil society enhance consultation, popular participation and capacity-building Chapter Seven.
Through implementation of the RDP in this manner, a national consensus will be reached. This consensus is critical to meeting basic needs, developing our human resources, building the economy and democratising the State and society.
It is critical to the reconstruction and development of our society at this important point of our transition. Chapter 8 sets out conclusions and poses major challenges to government and civil society. Chapter Nine is an overview of short to medium term programmes of the departments of government.
This lays the groundwork for the involvement of other sectors of society. Coordinated, efficient, transparent and consultative government is a basic premise of the RDP. Together, the Government and the people of South Africa will give renewed priority to the provision of goods and services to meet basic needs, develop our human resources, build the economy, and democratise the State and society.
The Constitution provides for different levels of government at national, provincial and local levels, and allocates competencies and powers to each. When the final Constitution is adopted, these competencies and powers will set the parameters for the roles of different tiers of government over the coming years. It is anticipated, however, that every office of government, from the smallest village council to the largest national department, will have to be restructured to take forward the RDP.
The programmes will include projects that are carefully identified and selected, compilation of project business plans, performance monitoring to support and ensure compliance with project business plans, and reporting of salient information.
It is setting up RDP funding processes in the context of sound fiscal policies.
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It will provide research, monitoring, statistical, auditing and performance assessment for the RDP. It will facilitate intergovernmental consensus, and will restructure and reorientate the Public Service towards the goals of the RDP. A variety of structures are already being formed to carry out these objectives. The Special Cabinet Committee will - assist in formulating RDP policies and strategies - ensure interdepartmental and intergovernmental cooperation - set goals, targets and priorities - develop an institutional framework and change management strategy including performance monitoring - ensure adequate funding of programmes - monitor and evaluate progress with implementation - coordinate the preparation of RDP-related legislation - Link RDP planning to the Budget process - establish a poverty-monitoring and information management system.
It will assist in cementing the relationship between the RDP and the Budget which is the expression of the Government's priorities and should thus conform to the priorities of the RDP. This review will better enable Parliament and the public to judge the way in which the Government has used the funds voted in the Budget and focus Budget debates more clearly on RDP priorities. Parliamentarians also have a vital role in RDP implementation and monitoring, and their ability to fuse the concerns of local constituencies with the process of governance will become more and more important as the RDP is tested on the ground.
Like all other institutions of government, Parliament should review its activities, structures and rules in order to advance the RDP. Significant progress has already been made in this respect. These task teams comprise representatives of appropriate national departments, Provincial Administrations and parastatals, with the assistance of technical experts and representatives of appropriate organisations of civil society. The task teams' briefs are to - facilitate cooperation and integration of planning and implementation between government departments and with all levels of government - develop methodologies to facilitate policy-formulation - advise on implementation of programmes - monitor the implementation and impact of integrated strategies - advise the Special Cabinet Committee on the RDP on strategic priorities.
In the process of restructuring the role and function of these bodies will be reformed in line with RDP and constitutional requirements. With a leaner, but more coordinated system of information-gathering and planning, the Development Planning Branch will support the Government, its agencies and other institutions in development planning and change management strategies, as well as setting out a draft urban development policy and draft rural development policy. This will occur in consultation with interdepartmental RDP task teams, Provincial and Local Governments, the civic movement and organised business.
Such policy frameworks are essential contributions to a national development strategy. All these agencies will provide support to national line function departments and to other institutions involved in RDP implementation 2. The RDP Office is not in competition with these departments. Without detracting from emerging forms of cooperation amongst Ministries, the RDP Office will ensure effective management of the transformation process. This forum is to provide an opportunity for consultation and joint decision-making between Ministers representing the National Government and the Premiers of the respective provinces on any matter of mutual interest, including matters pertaining to the RDP.
The forum will meet on a monthly basis, and is to be attended twice annually by the President and the Deputy Executive Presidents. The respective Ministers and Premiers are each to be assisted by their directors-general. This forum will assist the Intergovernmental Forum on technical matters and is, like the Intergovernmental Forum, a crucial structure to promote coordinated decision-making and cooperation regarding the RDP at intergovernmental levels.
These forums, who will also be supported by their respective technical committees consisting of senior officials of the provincial and national line function departments, can also play a crucial role with regard to the RDP as their briefs include cooperation on - policy and strategy formulation and implementation - the coordination of legislation - the efficient and effective employment of resources - the transfer of information - national norms and standards governing the performance of these functions.
Allocation of funds is controlled by the Minister without Portfolio. The goals of the fund are to start the key programmes of the RDP, to leverage the entire Budget to the new priorities, to encourage institutional reform and to facilitate the restructuring of the public sector. In particular, the RDP Fund will assist the Government in directing expenditure away from consumption and towards capital investment.
First, the fund will initially draw its resources from money appropriated by Parliament for the fund through savings by the departments. In effect therefore the RDP Fund consists of funds which have been removed from departmental allocations and can be reassigned to them subject to compliance with the new priorities. Leadership of Ministers and proper strategic planning by the departmental management will be encouraged to deliver on the objectives within the framework of the RDP Fund's priorities.
The process of democratisation has normalised relationships with the international community, and allows access to the broadest possible international financial base. An interdepartmental committee has been established from the Departments of Finance, State Expenditure, Trade and Industry, Foreign Affairs and the Office of the Minister without Portfolio as well as the CEAS to consider the aid offers of donor nations and multilateral agencies.
The committee will further investigate and negotiate with donors on the utilisation of aid for the funding of RDP programmes, with a view to optimising the use of grant aid and of concessionary finance as part of integrated funding packages for each programme. Major sectoral conferences are being held with donors to facilitate this process.
Careful attention will be given to assessing both the appropriate uses and applications of foreign support and conditions which attach to such funds. Where grant aid is utilised, care will be taken that grants used in RDP programmes are for once-off programmes and do not entail carry through costs to be accommodated in departments' budgets in ensuing years, unless this has been included in forward planning.
Where concessional loans are granted, care will be taken to assess the effective cost given currency depreciation. Donors have emphasised the need for coordination of aid and for clear priorities from the Government.