Size distance relationship psychology quiz

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size distance relationship psychology quiz

In relationships, especially those strained by physical distance, this It was just the right size to be truly important, but still seem trivial at face value. So you let it. British Journal of Psychology The results also show that the direction of the size‐distance relationship for successive judgements by individual observers may. The quiz below draws on a scale created by forgiveness research pioneer Michael McCullough I keep as much distance between us as possible. I keep as much Interpersonal Forgiving in Close Relationships: II. Theoretical Elaboration and Measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76,

This upside-down bowl represents one half of an imaginary sphere that surrounds the Earth that's called the celestial sphere.

size distance relationship psychology quiz

At night, it looks like someone drew stars on the inside of the bowl, stars that appear much closer together than they actually are. Although we now know that the stars are really much farther away than they appear, we can use the concept of a celestial sphere to conveniently relate important astronomical concepts as they appear to us. Namely, we do this through angles and degrees. Angles and Degrees The most familiar way to measure angles is through the use of degrees. That is to say, if you were to spin in a circle one time, you have spun around degrees.

If you turn directly to your left or right, you've made a 90 degree turn. You get the idea. Astronomers can use angles to measure the distance between stars as they appear to us in the sky and express these angles with degrees.

Angular Distance and Size The angle that is formed by two imaginary lines starting at an observer's eye and ending at two objects is known as the angular distance. The illustration on your screen depicts this concept well. In such hierarchies, each action e.

Construal-Level Theory of Psychological Distance

On the basis of this conceptualization, we posit two related criteria that can be used to distinguish which features of an item or an event are more high level and which are more low level i. The first criterion reflects centrality: Changing a high-level feature has a greater impact on the meaning of an object than does changing a low-level feature.

For example, a lecture would change more when the speaker is changed than when the room is changed, suggesting that the speaker is a higher level feature of the lecture than the room is. The second criterion reflects subordination: The meaning of low-level features depends on high-level features more than vice versa.

For example, when learning about a forthcoming guest lecture, location would become important only if the topic is interesting. In this sense, details about location are subordinated to details about topic, and thus constitute a lower level of construal. Construal and distance CLT contends that people use increasingly higher levels of construal to represent an object as the psychological distance from the object increases.

This is because high-level construals are more likely than low-level construals to remain unchanged as one gets closer to an object or farther away from it.

For example, the higher level goal to contact a friend is more stable over time than the more concrete goal to send her an e-mail, because an Internet connection might be unavailable when one is actually trying to contact the friend. From a temporally distant perspective, it is therefore more useful to construe this action in terms of the high-level goal rather than the low-level goal. The same holds true for the other distances.

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Thus, abstract categories tend to change less across social distance. For example, more people use communication devices than cell phones, and therefore, the former construal is more useful for relating to socially distant individuals. Even maintaining perceptual constancy across spatial distance requires abstraction. Identifying an object in near and distant locations as being the same requires forming an abstract concept e.

The use of high-level, abstract construals to represent psychologically distal objects is thus indispensable for effective functioning in many domains: Consider now the reverse direction of influence, namely, the effect of level of construal on distance.

size distance relationship psychology quiz

Because high-level construals are more general, they bring to mind more distal instantiations of objects. More generally, forming and comprehending abstract concepts enable people to mentally transcend the currently experienced object in time and space, integrating other social perspectives, and considering novel and hypothetical examples. It is critical that, although we believe that these functional relationships underlie the association between construal and distance, we propose that the effects of distance on construal and of construal on distance are overgeneralized, making them persist even when the initial reasons that gave rise to the association are no longer present.

That is, a large distance from an object would activate a high-level construal of the object even when low-level details are not particularly likely to change over distance, and high level of construal of an object would produce a sense of distance from the object even when such construal does not afford retrieval of particularly distal exemplars of the object. For example, students may know the room in which a guest lecture will take place well in advance and be quite certain that it will not change.

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Nevertheless, CLT predicts that these students will ignore the quality of the lecture room a low-level detail when it is temporally distant, when it takes place in a remote location, when it is planned for another person, and when it is unlikely to take place. Finally, it is worth emphasizing that although psychological distance and construal levels are related, they are not the same.

Psychological distance refers to the perception of when an event occurs, where it occurs, to whom it occurs, and whether it occurs. Construal levels refer to the perception of what will occur: Thus, psychological distance from an event should be more closely related to the spatiotemporal distance of the event from the self than to its inherent properties, whereas the construal of the event should be more closely related to its inherent properties than to its spatiotemporal distance from the self.

Below, we develop more fully the assumption that the different psychological distances are interrelated Section II and that each distance affects and is affected by level of construal Section III.

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Indeed, people use spatial metaphors to represent time in everyday language and reasoning Boroditsky, In social psychology, spatial distance is often used to measure social distance.

For example, choosing a more distant seat from another person is taken to reflect social distancing from that person e. More generally, if a common dimension of psychological distance underlies the various distance dimensions we have enumerated, then these distance dimensions should be mentally associated.

For example, remote locations should bring to mind the distant rather than the near future, other people rather than oneself, and unlikely rather than likely events. In an investigation of this hypothesis, Bar-Anan, Liberman, Trope, and Algom used a picture—word Stroop task Stroop, to examine the cognitive interrelations among psychological distances.

Participants viewed landscape photographs containing an arrow that was pointing to either a proximal or a distal point in the landscape see Figure 1.

Each arrow contained a word denoting either psychological proximity e. In one version of the task, they had to indicate whether the arrow pointed to a proximal or distal location.