Technological Advances - Science NetLinks
Technological Advances and Challenges in the Telecommunications Sector The difference between videotex by telecommunications services and teletext by . Science contributes to technology in at least six ways: (1) new knowledge which . research and technical societies on industrial R&D and technical advance. However, thanks to ongoing technological advances, businesses have the to a stronger relationship between customers and businesses.'.
Indus Valley[ edit ] The Indus Valley Civilizationsituated in a resource-rich area, is notable for its early application of city planning and sanitation technologies.
How advances in technology are changing the business-consumer relationship
Indus Valley construction and architecture, called ' Vaastu Shastra ', suggests a thorough understanding of materials engineering, hydrology, and sanitation. Mesopotamians[ edit ] The peoples of Mesopotamia SumeriansAkkadiansAssyriansand Babylonians have been credited with the invention of the wheelbut this is no longer certain. They lived in cities from c. The walls of Babylon were so massive they were quoted as a Wonder of the World. They developed extensive water systems; canals for transport and irrigation in the alluvial south, and catchment systems stretching for tens of kilometers in the hilly north.
Their palaces had sophisticated drainage systems.
Many records on clay tablets and stone inscriptions have survived. These civilizations were early adopters of bronze technologies which they used for tools, weapons and monumental statuary.
They enabled meticulous astronomers to plot the motions of the planets and to predict eclipses. Major technological contributions from China include early seismological detectorsmatches, papersliding calipers, the double-action piston pump, cast ironwater powered blast furnace bellows, the iron plough, the multi-tube seed drillthe wheelbarrow, the suspension bridgethe parachute, the compassthe raised-relief mapthe propeller, the crossbowthe South Pointing Chariot and gunpowder.
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China also developed deep well drilling, which they used to extract brine for making salt. Some of these wells, which were as deep as meters, produced natural gas which was used for evaporating brine. The solid-fuel rocket was invented in China aboutnearly years after the invention of gunpowder which acted as the rocket's fuel. Decades before the West's age of exploration, the Chinese emperors of the Ming Dynasty also sent large fleets on maritime voyages, some reaching Africa.
Greek[ edit ] Greek and Hellenistic engineers were responsible for myriad inventions and improvements to existing technology. The Hellenistic periodin particular, saw a sharp increase in technological advancement, fostered by a climate of openness to new ideas, the blossoming of a mechanistic philosophy, and the establishment of the Library of Alexandria and its close association with the adjacent museion.
For example, telecommunication has already merged with information processing to provide data communication or on-line processing. Facsimile communication service provided by common carriers and electronic mail service provided by the post office will soon merge, eliminating the physical delivery of documents to and from customers. The difference between videotex by telecommunications services and teletext by broadcasting services will be minimized when cable television systems acquire two-way capability.
One benefit of the convergence of service modes is that it provides economies of scale; that is, many kinds of information can be provided in various forms through a variety of media at a reasonable cost. These benefits, however, will be lost without a reevaluation of regulatory measures, which traditionally have been organized on the basis of separate services.
Because services cover broad areas that transcend national boundaries, international compatibility of these regulatory measures is necessary to ensure the unobstructed flow of information globally. The advent of optical fibers, lasers, photodiodes, and other photonic devices permitted lightwave communication over great distances.
Clearly, major systems in modern telecommunication have been deeply dependent on innovations in the area of electronic devices and materials.
Technological Advances in Evolutionary Relationships by V Seng on Prezi
This trend, often referred to as the microelectronics revolution, will intensify in the years ahead. New systems will depend more on the development of new devices and materials. Characteristically, the technology supporting electronic devices and materials is capital intensive and quickly obsolete.
Year after year, billions of dollars have been spent worldwide for research, development, and production of sophisticated devices, which, through keen competition in the marketplace, became cheaper and cheaper and eventually obsolete. Because of the rapid progress of large-scale integration that permits a sizable system to be mounted on a single chip, system manufacturers must also face the issue of capital-intensive investment and quick obsolescence.
The increase is due to the constant demand for more sophisticated and diversified types of software, as well as to the high labor costs associated with software development and production. Several techniques, including structured programming, yield considerable improvement in software productivity. Yet much progress is needed before we will achieve dramatic improvements in software development, production, and testing. Because microprocessors are being used in an increasing variety of applications, tremendous efforts will be required to produce the many programs needed for specific applications.
Another problem associated with software is patent and copyright protection. Generally, patent protection has been given to hardware-oriented inventions. However, since algorithms are considered similar to mathematical formulas or laws of nature, it has been ruled that software-oriented inventions are not patentable. After you have listened to the story or read the transcript, read the section called Making Sense of the Research and think about the answers to these questions: What are the advantages and disadvantages of using phage to fight infections?From Stone Age to Tech Age: The Big Ideas that Shaped History
Why is phage being re-considered after so many years of obscurity? Do you think the fight against antibiotic resistance should focus on new technology, or more judicious use of antibiotics? Give reasons for your answer.
Now you will select a particular scientific technology that has contributed to human health.