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Bones and Joints of the Foot and Ankle Ankle Lateral side of the ankle Joint capsule The bones of the foot and ankle begin with the ankle joint itself. The ankle joint, talocrural joint, is formed where the distal end of the leg meets the foot. The ankle joint is formed where the talus the uppermost bone in the foot and the tibia shin meet. The talus fits between the two bony prominences on either side of the ankle. In a hinge joint, a convex part of one bone fits into the concave part of the other bone.
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The mortise and tenon construct is well known to carpenters and craftsmen who use this type of construction to join everything from furniture to large buildings. The ankle joint allows the foot to bend up flex and down extend. When the foot is extended, the heel is drawn up and the toes point downward. Other movements, such as tilting and rotation take place in and around the joints in the foot itself.
Strong ligaments on either each side of the joint limit movement. The ankle bones are connected by the anterior talofibular ligament, posterior talofibular ligament, and calcaneofibular ligament.
The articular capsule surrounds the joint with thin fibrous tissue. A synovial membrane is in under the ligamnents. Of the ligaments, the deltoid is so strong that it usually resists a force which fractures the bone to which it is attached. Foot Bones of the foot as seen from the medial arch side. The foot forms a firm basis of support for the body in the erect posture, and is solidly built up and its parts are less movable on each other than those of the hand.
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The phalanges toes of the foot are smaller and their movements are more limited than the fingers of the hand. Very much more different between the metacarpal bone of the thumb and the metatarsal bone of the great toe. The metatarsal bone of the great toe helps support the weight of the body, is constructed with great solidity, lies parallel with the other metatarsals, and has a very limited amount of movement. The tarsus forms a considerable part of the foot, and is at right angles to the leg, and relates to an erect posture.
In order to support our body weight with the least amount of surface area, the tarsus and a part of the metatarsus is made up of a series of arches.
The bones of the foot include the tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges. Bones of the foot from the lateral side side opposite the arch.
The two bones that make up the hindfoot are the talus and the calcaneus heel. Where the talus meets the calcaneus forms the subtalar joint. The subtalar joint allows the foot to rock from side-to-side.
Tarsal Bones The tarsal bones work together as a group. The way these bones fit together is very interesting. When the muscles of the foot and leg twists the foot in one direction, the tarsal bones lock together and form a very rigid structure.
When they twist in the opposite direction, the bones unlock, allowing the foot to conform to whatever surface the foot is contacting. There are seven tarsal bones: The calcaneus heel bone is the largest of the tarsal bones. It transmits the weight of the body to the ground and acts as a lever for the muscles of the calf. Single point perspective projection. Double point perspective projection. Pietro Perugino 's use of perspective in the Delivery of the Keys fresco at the Sistine Chapel —82 helped bring the Renaissance to Rome.
Detection of vanishing points[ edit ] Several methods for vanishing point detection make use of the line segments detected in images. Other techniques involve considering the intensity gradients of the image pixels directly. There are significantly large numbers of vanishing points present in an image. Therefore, the aim is to detect the vanishing points that correspond to the principal directions of a scene.
This is generally achieved in two steps. The first step, called the accumulation step, as the name suggests, clusters the line segments with the assumption that a cluster will share a common vanishing point.Diamond Rio - Meet In The Middle
The next step finds the principal clusters present in the scene and therefore it is called the search step. In the accumulation step, the image is mapped onto a bounded space called the accumulator space. The accumulator space is partitioned into units called cells.
Barnard  assumed this space to be a Gaussian sphere centered on the optical center of the camera as an accumulator space.
A line segment on the image corresponds to a great circle on this sphere, and the vanishing point in the image is mapped to a point. The Gaussian sphere has accumulator cells that increase when a great circle passes through them, i. Several modifications have been made since, but one of the most efficient techniques was using the Hough Transform, mapping the parameters of the line segment to the bounded space.
Cascaded Hough Transforms have been applied for multiple vanishing points.
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The process of mapping from the image to the bounded spaces causes the loss of the actual distances between line segments and points.
In the search step, the accumulator cell with the maximum number of line segments passing through it is found. This is followed by removal of those line segments, and the search step is repeated until this count goes below a certain threshold. As more computing power is now available, points corresponding to two or three mutually orthogonal directions can be found.
Applications of vanishing points[ edit ] Use of cross-ratios in projective geometry to measure real-world dimensions of features depicted in a perspective projection. In 1the width of the side street, W is computed from the known widths of the adjacent shops. In 2the width of only one shop is needed because a vanishing pointV is visible. The vanishing points of an image contain important information for camera calibration.