Industrialization and imperialism (video) | Khan Academy
There's Correlation and Coincidence rather than any Connection. The intersections between the Industrial Revolution and Imperialism happened Originally the agricultural revolution increased the efficiency of farming meaning that more. Late nineteenth-century imperialism,vas but another chapter in the long With industrialization largely limited to Europe and the United States, the . not always be in exact proportion to the difference of working time; but in. The term “imperialism” can be a “catch-all” to describe the relationship between At the same time there is a classical meaning for empire, with reference to the.
Even the small country of Portugal, because of its prowess during the Age of Exploration, a significant amount of territory in what would become Brazil, but they also have possessions and colonies along the coast of Africa and even things in India, like Goa. You have the British, having possessions in North America, things that would eventually evolve into the United States and Canada. At this point in time, France also has significant possessions, which will later be taken by Britain and then an independent U.
But the thing to notice in this map is despite these significant possessions, much of the world is not controlled by the Europeans. Yes, England also is starting to have a bit of a colonial possession, although at this point it's a corporate possession in eastern India, in Bengal, but much of Africa and Asia is not under European control.
But then as we enter into the second half of the 18th century, and especially the 19th century, something important happens in the scope of human history, and that's the Industrial Revolution or maybe you could say the Industrial Revolutions.
Now, there's many technologies that are central to the Industrial Revolution, but probably most important is the steam engine, although you could contend maybe it's the steam engine, maybe it's electrification, maybe it is the telegraph.
The Impact of Imperialism on the Region
But the steam engine all of a sudden allows us to harness the power of really coal to create steam to turn engines. And then these engines could be used to power factories so that you could amplify what human labor could do before.
This factory right over here, it looks like they're creating fabric from some kind of thread or they might be sewing of some kind. And a human equipped with a power loom or with a sewing machine could produce much, much more than they could've ever produced before by hand.
The steam engine and things like electricity also create a revolution in transportation, the transportation of goods and people, but also the movement of information. This right over here is a picture of a steamship, which you could use for trade, but you could also use it to project military power.
This here is a railroad. Similarly, transport goods and people but it also allows you to keep control over a larger swath of territory. And this is a telegraph. And then a telegraph, all of a sudden, for the first time in history, you can communicate across the globe in a mere instant.
And what used to take months to figure out what was going on could now happen in seconds. So, once again, this is valuable for trade, but it's also valuable for coordinating military power. So in large part to these revolutions that we're seeing, and we will study more in other videos, the map of the world looks very different roughly years later.
This is what the world looks like around the year and you immediately notice some differences from that previous map. Most of those colonial possessions in North and South America are now independent but you notice something dramatic happening in Africa and in much of Asia. Africa has now been carved up by the colonial powers. In this salmon color, you see where the British have control in much of South Africa and then around Egypt and Sudan and parts of East Africa. You see the French have control of Algeria and much of Eastern Africa.
What started off for the British as a corporate possession in Eastern India has now grown to become a possession of the Crown. You have India, part of the British Empire. Even Japan, which is one of the first Asian countries to industrialize, is in on imperialism. It has control in Korea and in Taiwan.
So why this kind of imperialism? There's always the standard motivations for imperialism that we've seen throughout world history. If you have conquest, that leads to more land plus people under your rule. And if you have more land, which is for the most part used for agriculture, well, you're going to have more taxes and wealth.
And if you have more people, they will have output so you can tax that, but they can also be used, they could be taxed, so to speak, for war. They could produce more soldiers and so the more revenue and soldiers you have, well, that could help you just accrue more and more power. And so this is the classic loop that you see why most empires tried to expand and sometimes when they stopped expanding, you see that they started to decline.
But now in this video, from the early 18th century to the beginning of the 20th century, we have new things at play. We have the technological innovation from the Industrial Revolution, things like electricity and steam power. A popular revolutionary general, Giuseppe Garibaldi, raised an army of a thousand volunteers who brought southern Italy into the Italian union.
InItaly became a nation, and Victor Emmanuel was proclaimed king. InGermany was made up of 39 small countries. One of the largest and most powerful was the eastern kingdom of Prussia. Prussia's brilliant prime minister, Otto von Bismark, believed Germany's unification would not be achieved through democratic means, "but by blood and iron.
ByGermany was unified, and Prussia's king was crowned as kaiser emperor over all of Germany. A prime minister serves as the head of a country's government. In today's world, prime ministers have powers similar to American presidents.
The last half of the century, however, saw the emergence of a darker side of nationalism that glorified war and military conquest. This extreme form of nationalism was supported by racism, a belief that one's own race or culture is superior to others.
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Racism, in turn, was supported by social Darwinism. Charles Darwin was an English scientist who had a huge impact on Western thought when he developed a theory of evolution based on the idea of "natural selection. Social Darwinists took Darwin's theory and used it to justify the racist belief that the world's more technologically advanced white races were fittest and intended by nature to dominate "lesser" races.
The idea of "survival of the fittest" was also adopted by rich industrialists who believed their wealth proved they were superior examples of the human species. Therefore, it was perfectly acceptable for them to enjoy their vast riches while keeping their inferior workers living in poverty. After the Industrial Revolution, Western powers used their superior weapons and powerful iron warships to conquer much of the world, especially lands in Africa and Asia.
InWestern powers controlled 35 percent of the world's land surface; bythey controlled 84 percent. When a nation dominates or controls another land physically, economically, or politically, it is called imperialism.
Western imperialism placed millions of black and brown people under the control of white people. Imperialism was encouraged by nationalism; European nations wanted to increase their power and pride by adding new colonies. Imperialism was also supported by racist attitudes like social Darwinism. Europeans claimed to be doing "backward" people a favor by conquering their lands and bringing them Western advancements.
But the most important force behind imperialism was money. The Industrial Revolution changed Europe from a consumer of manufactured goods to a producer, and Europe's factories needed places to sell their products. One Englishman said, "There are 40 million naked people [in Africa], and the cotton spinners of Manchester are waiting to clothe them.
India From their base in Bengal, the British steadily gained control of India's warring regional states until Britain was master of India.
India had the biggest population of any British colony, and it supplied troops to enforce British rule elsewhere in the empire. Soldiers at this time had to bite off the ends of rifle cartridges to load their rifles.
When beef fat was used to seal cartridges, Indian troops rebelled because cows are sacred to Hindus. The rebellion quickly spread to other areas of Indian society. India was the "jewel in the crown" of Britain's colonial empire that also included Canada, Australia, and big chunks of Africa.
It was said, "The sun never sets on the British Empire. But British control also harmed Indians. For example, the spinning of cotton in Indian homes had long been a source of income for peasants until they were put out of work by inexpensive cotton cloth imported from England's textile mills.
Australia Australia is the only country that is also a continent. Like the Americas, Australia was settled twice: The Dutch spotted Australia first, but found it a barren land and lost interest. British explorer James Cook found more promising land in southern Australia and claimed the continent for Britain. The British first used Australia as a prison colony; Australia's first European settlers were convicts. After gold was found in the mids, European immigration to Australia boomed.
The native Aborigines experienced the usual pattern of decline after contact with Western diseases and weapons. New Zealand was added to the British Empire in The British took control of Canada from the French in Many French-speaking Canadians remain, primarily in the province of Quebec. Canada is the second-largest country in size after Russia, but most of its people live within miles of its border with the United States.
Despite their far-flung locations, the former British colonies of Australia, New Zealand, and Canada are considered part of the Western world. Opium War InChina was a manufacturing powerhouse, producing one-quarter of the world's goods.
Imperialism, Revolution, and Industrialization in 19th-Century Europe
It was the wealthiest country on earth. But there was a problem. The British liked their tea, and Britain was sending huge amounts of silver to China in payment for tea and other products. The Chinese, however, had little interest in British goods. This trade imbalance was draining silver from Britain. Britain decided to deal drugs.
Britain found that Bengal was ideal for growing opium, a highly addictive narcotic. Britain grew opium in India, shipped it to China, and received silver in payment. Although opium use was illegal in China, large segments of the Chinese population became addicted, especially the poor. Alarmed that the opium trade was ruining China's society and economy, the Qing emperor pleaded with the British to stop.
When they didn't, he ordered the opium trade shut down. After a Qing official seized and destroyed opium from British warehouses, Britain declared war in With their superior ships and weapons, and with their bombardment of Chinese ports, the British won an easy victory.
Imperialism, Revolution, and Industrialization in 19th-Century Europe | Owlcation
Britain forced China to pay the costs of the war and to open new ports to Western ships. China's defeat was humiliating; not only were foreign "barbarians" dictating terms to China and occupying Chinese territory, the war showed how far behind China's technology had fallen.
The Qing Empire continued to weaken through the s. It was shaken by major uprisings, and defeated in a war with Japan in A final uprising in ended the Qing dynasty, and with it over 2, years of rule by Chinese dynasties dating back to the First Emperor in BC. The last Chinese emperor was an 8-year-old boy. Meiji Restoration MAY-gee In Japan of the early s, the Tokugawa Shogunate was still trying to preserve Japan's cultural traditions through measures such as banning firearms and maintaining isolation from foreigners.
The Americans, like the British, believed in free trade even when a country didn't want to trade. Ina squadron of American warships arrived in Japan and threatened bombardment unless Japan opened trade with the United States. At gunpoint, the shogunate agreed. In the political unrest that followed, members of the samurai class armed themselves with surplus weapons from the American Civil War and overthrew the Tokugawa Shogunate. Japan's feudal system with its shogun and regional warlords was replaced by a modern centralized government that granted equal rights to Japanese citizens.
Although the Japanese emperor had long been mainly a ceremonial figure, the samurai restored power to a new emperor named Meiji. Devotion to the god-like emperor became central to Japanese nationalism. The Meiji government sent officials to the West to learn about constitutional governments and new technologies. With help from Western advisers, Japan joined the Industrial Revolution, building railroads, factories, and a modern navy. For the first time, Japan was stronger than its big neighbor China.
Although the war was fought on Russia's doorstep in the Crimea, the more distant Western powers won with better railways, weapons, and navies. The war was a rude awakening for the Russians.
The tsar responded by freeing the serfs and giving them land and some education. He hoped these reforms would increase farm and factory production and generate income to help modernize Russia. At the time of the Crimean War, more soldiers died from infection and disease than from bullets.
Britain sent Florence Nightingale to the Crimea to improve conditions in military hospitals where she managed to reduce death rates from 45 to 5 percent. In the process, she invented modern nursing. This war also saw reporters use the telegraph for the first time to send home news reports from the front. And this was the setting for Tennyson's famed poem about a soldier's duty, The Charge of the Light Brigade: Their's not to reason why, Their's but to do and die: Into the valley of Death rode the six hundred.