Customer satisfaction - Wikipedia
Customer Relationship Marketing CRM Definition - Customer relationship marketing are Web technologies and a sharpened global focus on customer loyalty. This definition explains the meaning of customer relationship management Analytics in CRM help create better customer satisfaction rates by. CRM: Customer Relationship Management, applications and strategy, solutions, shifting the focus from product to customer; streamlining the offer to what the.
CRM software is used to support these processes, storing information on current and prospective customers. Information in the system can be accessed and entered by employees in different departments, such as sales, marketing, customer service, training, professional development, performance management, human resource development, and compensation.
Details on any customer contacts can also be stored in the system. The rationale behind this approach is to improve services provided directly to customers and to use the information in the system for targeted marketing and sales purposes.What does CRM stand for - Small Business CRM
While the term is generally used to refer to a software-based approach to handling customer relationships, most CRM software vendors stress that a successful CRM strategy requires a holistic approach.
CRM initiatives often fail because implementation was limited to software installation without providing the appropriate motivations for employees to learn, provide input, and take full advantage of the information systems Overview[ edit ] From the outside, customers interacting with a company perceive the business as a single entity, despite often interacting with a variety of employees in different roles and departments.
CRM is a combination of policies, processes, and strategies implemented by a company that unify its customer interaction and provides a mechanism for tracking customer information.
Front office operations — Direct interaction with customers, e. Back office operations — Operations that ultimately affect the activities of the front office e. This external network supports front and back office activities. Analysis — Key CRM data can be analyzed in order to plan target-marketing campaigns, conceive business strategies, and judge the success of CRM activities e.
- Customer relationship management
- Supply-chain management
- Customer-relationship management
There are several different approaches to CRM, with different software packages focusing on different aspects. Interactions with customers are generally stored in customers' contact histories, and staff can retrieve customer information as necessary.
The contact history provides staff members with immediate access to important information on the customer products owned, prior support calls etc.
Consequently, many call centers use some form of CRM software. Operational CRM processes customer data for a variety of purposes: Designing and executing targeted marketing campaigns Designing and executing campaigns, e.
Features include alerts sent to sales staff regarding: Campaign management functions include: Target groups formed from the client base according to selected criteria Sending campaign-related material e. Staff members within the departments can share information collected when interacting with customers.
For example, feedback received by customer support agents can provide other staff members with information on the services and features requested by customers.
Collaborative CRM's ultimate goal is to use information collected by all departments to improve the quality of services provided by the company. Geographic data can be analysed to provide a snapshot of potential customers in a region or to plan routes for customer visits.
However, as mentioned above, CRM is not just a technology but rather a comprehensive, customer-centric approach to an organization's philosophy of dealing with its customers. This includes policies and processes, front-of-house customer service, employee training, marketing, systems and information management. Hence, it is important that any CRM implementation considerations stretch beyond technology toward the broader organizational requirements.
Information gained through CRM initiatives can support the development of marketing strategy by developing the organization's knowledge in areas such as identifying customer segments, improving customer retention, improving product offerings by better understanding customer needsand by identifying the organization's most profitable customers.
Some companies consider a CRM strategy only to focus on the management of a team of salespeople. However, other CRM strategies can cover customer interaction across the entire organization.
Supply chain management was then further defined as the integration of supply chain activities through improved supply-chain relationships to achieve a competitive advantage.
The management of upstream and downstream value-added flows of materials, final goods, and related information among suppliers, company, resellersand final consumers. As a consequence, costs must be lowered throughout the chain by driving out unnecessary expenses, movements, and handling. The main focus is turned to efficiency and added value, or the end user's perception of value.
Efficiency must be increased, and bottlenecks removed. The measurement of performance focuses on total system efficiency and the equitable monetary reward distribution to those within the supply chain. The supply-chain system must be responsive to customer requirements. It also includes coordination and collaboration with channel partnerswhich may be suppliersintermediariesthird-party service providers, or customers.
More recently, the loosely coupled, self-organizing network of businesses that cooperate to provide product and service offerings has been called the Extended Enterprise. Supply chain management is the management of such a chain. With SCEM, possible scenarios can be created and solutions devised.
Business relationship management - Wikipedia
Including third-party logistics or other gathering agencies as part of the RM re-patriation process is a way of illustrating the new endgame strategy. As organizations strive to focus on core competencies and become more flexible, they reduce their ownership of raw materials sources and distribution channels. These functions are increasingly being outsourced to other firms that can perform the activities better or more cost effectively.
The effect is to increase the number of organizations involved in satisfying customer demand, while reducing managerial control of daily logistics operations. Less control and more supply-chain partners lead to the creation of the concept of supply-chain management.
Customer service - Wikipedia
The purpose of supply-chain management is to improve trust and collaboration among supply-chain partners thus improving inventory visibility and the velocity of inventory movement. Importance[ edit ] Organizations increasingly find that they must rely on effective supply chains, or networks, to compete in the global market and networked economy. In recent decades, globalization, outsourcing, and information technology have enabled many organizations, such as Dell and Hewlett Packardto successfully operate collaborative supply networks in which each specialized business partner focuses on only a few key strategic activities Scott, This inter-organisational supply network can be acknowledged as a new form of organisation.
However, with the complicated interactions among the players, the network structure fits neither "market" nor "hierarchy" categories Powell, It is not clear what kind of performance impacts different supply-network structures could have on firms, and little is known about the coordination conditions and trade-offs that may exist among the players.
From a systems perspective, a complex network structure can be decomposed into individual component firms Zhang and Dilts, Traditionally, companies in a supply network concentrate on the inputs and outputs of the processes, with little concern for the internal management working of other individual players. Therefore, the choice of an internal management control structure is known to impact local firm performance Mintzberg, In the 21st century, changes in the business environment have contributed to the development of supply-chain networks.
First, as an outcome of globalization and the proliferation of multinational companies, joint ventures, strategic alliances, and business partnerships, significant success factors were identified, complementing the earlier " just-in-time ", lean manufacturingand agile manufacturing practices. Many researchers have recognized supply network structures as a new organisational form, using terms such as " Keiretsu ", "Extended Enterprise", "Virtual Corporation", " Global Production Network ", and "Next Generation Manufacturing System".
Supply-chain management is also important for organizational learning.
Firms with geographically more extensive supply chains connecting diverse trading cliques tend to become more innovative and productive. Supply-Chain Management draws heavily from the areas of operations management, logistics, procurement, and information technology, and strives for an integrated approach. Historical developments[ edit ] Six major movements can be observed in the evolution of supply-chain management studies: Creation era[ edit ] The term "supply chain management" was first coined by Keith Oliver in However, the concept of a supply chain in management was of great importance long before, in the early 20th century, especially with the creation of the assembly line.
The characteristics of this era of supply chain management include the need for large-scale changes, re-engineering, downsizing driven by cost reduction programs, and widespread attention to Japanese management practices. However, the term became widely adopted after the publication of the seminal book Introduction to Supply Chain Management in by Robert B.
Handfield and Ernest L. This era has continued to develop into the 21st century with the expansion of Internet-based collaborative systems.
This era of supply-chain evolution is characterized by both increasing value added and cost reductions through integration. A supply chain can be classified as a stage 1, 2 or 3 network. In a stage 1—type supply chain, systems such as production, storage, distribution, and material control are not linked and are independent of each other.
In a stage 2 supply chain, these are integrated under one plan and enterprise resource planning ERP is enabled. A stage 3 supply chain is one that achieves vertical integration with upstream suppliers and downstream customers.