Although the effect the classroom teacher can have on student achievement is . you how much of a difference in behavior you can expect between classes that. This study was designed to determine the relationship among teacher classroom management behavior, student engagement, and student achievement of. The aim of this study therefore was to examine the relationship between effective classroom management and students' academic achievement I physics.
Teachers who are interested in fostering and promoting effective classroom learning cannot ignore classroom behavior of their students. They work towards ensuring that learners acquire important habits that would help them cope with learning events.
They would want students to feel, think and act with respect for themselves and other people. These enable them to learn how to pursue their own well-being and to act in consideration of the feelings of others. Observant teachers know when learner behavior becomes disruptive and interferes with classroom activities Sharp and Smith, Disruptive behaviors are inappropriate behavior, which interfere with the academic and administrative activities of a school Amada, Among the disruptive behaviors commonly identified by teachers are bulling, hitting, name calling, sleeping in class, prolonged, chatting, excessive lateness, unexcused exit from class, verbal or physical threat to a student or teacher, eating in the class Amada, These disruptive behaviors may persistently or grossly interfere with the academic learning of the school making it difficult for both the learners and teachers function effectively and efficiently.
Learners who are disruptive have been observed not only to cause a lot of problems to their classmates and teachers but are most affected both socially and educationally Santrock, and Sorcinelli, A number of factors have been suggested as being responsible for disruptive behavior in the classroom. According to Santrock,the most valuable advice in trying to locate the cause of disruptive behavior in the class would be to raise questions in these questions in this order.
Is it from the teacher? Is it the child? The physical and psychological environment of the school may be such that do not promote orderly behavior. School that are two large, impersonal, competitive, lack rules and regulations, and meaningful curriculum may create conditions not conducive for learning.
The Critical Role of Classroom Management
The expectations of science every teacher is that learners will develop appropriate interpersonal communication skills, self-discipline, and problem solving skills. These attributes if acquired go a long way to minimize problem behavior in the classrooms and ensure an increase in skills and behavior in the classrooms and ensure an increase in skills and behaviors that lead to social competence and effective classroom climate Sorcinelli, Inadequate socio-psychological has also been observed to relate positively to low academic achievement among learners in schools Charles and Senter, The teaching of physics in secondary schools has been an issue of major concern to science educators because physics is one of the basic science subjects that must be taught in the senior secondary school.
The teaching of physics provides the learners with understanding, skills and scientific knowledge needed for scientific research European Journal of Educational Studies 4 3fostering economic and technological growth in the society, where they live thus improving the standard of living. For a long time physics has been mystified as difficult and hence as one of the most dreaded subjects by students. This dislike for physics might be attributed to so many reasons such as the subject itself, the methods which are being used to teach the subject, lack of effective classroom management skills of the teacher is one factor that may affect student achievement skills of the teacher and so on.
Thus improved teacher preparation and professional development in classroom management are part of the solution towards a better learning of physics. It is evident that a well improved and structurally planned classroom management technique can help to achieve a better performance of students in schools, it is therefore important for teachers for teachers to consider some of the basic tips required when trying to implement classroom behavior management strategies.
Considering this observation, one wonders the extent these teachers are aware of and apply research supported classroom behavior management skills. Over the years there has a record of poor performance of students in physics examination which are written every year in the country.
It has also been observed that students no longer have interest in learning physics. Since classroom management is a keystone for students learning and has been cited by virtually every researcher and reviewer who looked at the relationship between educational practices and student results Angell, ; Harwood, et al If the school authorities and physics teachers emphasize more on how to implement classroom management skills perhaps these problems stated above could be minimized.
However, there is a need to determine the strategies teachers perceive to be effective in handling disruptive behavior in secondary schools, therefore this research work will look into better ways of implementing effective management strategies which aid in the improvement of students in physics and also how the interest of students in the subject could be regained.
The environment has both reflected and influenced the behavior of students, and it has been affected by events within and outside of the school Condition of Education, Most educators and researchers have agreed that the total environment should be comfortable, pleasant, and psychologically uplifting; should provide a physical setting that students find educationally stimulating; should produce a feeling of well-being among its occupants; and should support the academic process.
One major aspect of the classroom climate that has fallen under the control of the teacher is that of classroom management and discipline. Classroom management has referred to all the planned or spontaneous activities and interactions that have occurred within a classroom.
In recent years, a growing interest has emerged in the area of classroom management.
The classroom environment is a large part of classroom management that will either encourage students to succeed, or hamper their abilities and cause more failures.
The classroom environment is different than the classroom management because it European Journal of Educational Studies 4 3deals with how the students feel in the classroom. While classroom management focuses on procedures, routines, and expectations, the classroom environment focuses on the relationships between students and teachers, as well as how the students feel amongst their peers in the classroom Stepanek, Classroom management is the heart of teaching and learning in school setting.
A well-managed classroom can provide an exciting and dynamic experience for everyone involved. Unfortunately, student behavior can often with this process.
Good classroom management implies not only that the teacher has elicited the cooperation of the student s in minimizing misconduct and can intervene effectively when misconduct occurs, but also that worthwhile academic activities are occurring more or less continuously and that the classroom management system as a whole is designed to maximize student engagement in those activities, not merely to minimize misconduct.
Many times, by encouraging behavior that is more positive and uplifting in one classroom, the behavior will carry on into other classrooms, taking the safe environment further than one classroom. Student achievement, as well as emotional and social outcomes, can all be positively affected by a safe, positive learning environment Stepanek, When teachers dop not tolerate disrespect both among students and between the students and teacher, they set the standard for their classroom and students feel more encouraged to participate and take risks in the classroom.
Because of this, setting the classroom environment is often just as important as establishing classroom management strategies. Teachers have entered a new age of classroom management. Faced with new challenges during the first part of the twenty first century teachers, teacher educators and school administrators have searched for alternative ways to manage classrooms.
However, finding answers to classroom management situations is difficult because there is disagreement about what constitutes effective classroom management approaches. Some administrators and teachers think of classroom management and discipline as being synonymous terms.
Vasa describe classroom management as behaviors related to maintenance of on-task student behaviors and the reduction off-task or disruptive behaviors.
Those who share his view define effective classroom management as a way of preparing students for life. Teachers and administrators who approach classroom management from this perspective define effective classroom management as the process of creating a positive social and emotional climate in the classroom Morris, One of the most important skills possessed by effective teachers is that of classroom management.
These skills are considered by Lang et al. Aspects are also of vital importance. These four categories are: For example, a well-prepared teacher has a much greater chance of achieving effective lesson management. In the discussion of Lang et al. They advise that such extremes should include monitoring and enforcing reasonable classroom rules, procedures and routines. Both this study and the discussion of Lang et al.
An analysis of the past fifty years of educational research as noted by Wang, Haertel, and Walberg as cited in Conte, revealed that effective classroom management increases student engagement, decreases disruptive behaviors, and makes good use of instructional time. These behavior theories greatly influenced, and are still influencing classroom management. According to Emmer and Stoughsome studies have used student achievement or attitude as outcomes.
But most classroom management research today has been concerned with identified how teachers bring about student engagement with each other and limit the disruptions in the classroom.
These summaries will identify the influences each has made on classroom behavior and management. Otherwise stated, he saw learning as a result of associations forced between stimuli and actions, or impulses to act. Simple associations would accumulate to larger groups of learned associations.
In regards to the classroom, Skinner Conte, stated that by rewarding students for good behavior and ignoring or punishing wrong behavior, students would come to understand how to behave in a classroom environment. Behaviors that were rewarded would be repeated; those that were not would be avoided, and thus, a well-behaved class would result. The teaching machine was a form of programed instruction.
At first, it was seen as a threat to teachers and their jobs. Reassuring the educators, Skinner announced that his programed instruction was a learning aid, not a substitute for a human teacher. He also reassured educators that the children trained with the device would not become mechanized little robots, but would more likely be able to reach their intellectual potential. Later, Skinner was credited with creating a revolution in the technology of education.
Behavior modification involved training teachers to wait for their students to emit appropriate responses and then to reinforce those responses quickly and consistently. This idea of behavior modification would again, revolutionize technology in education. Parents model this behavior for their children on a daily basis. This process too, is to promote good behavior and diminish bad behavior in the classroom. Jacob kounin and his colleagues engaged in substantial classroom management research during the s.
His work focused on determining whether specific behavior settings and environmental conditions influenced behavior. He also identified a set of teacher behaviors and lesson characteristics including, weightiness, smoothness, momentum, overlapping and group alerting. These characteristics would describe a teacher who knew what was going on at all times in the classroom and was able to deal with more than one issue or problem at a time.
Good classroom management would then facilitate student learning, by allowing teachers to accomplish other important instructional duties. According to Emmer and Stough Kouunin also became interested in a rather contemporary issue of the time. He questioned whether managerial behaviors that work for regular education students have the same effects on students identified as emotionally disturbed in the same classrooms. This research was an early indication that inclusion of children with disabilities within the classroom was the right approach.
His work highlighted the influenced of classroom activities as a source of important variations in student and teacher behavior. Helping students meet their own needs is of the utmost importance to enhance student learning opportunities and to maintain teacher longevity in the classroom. Maslow 9as cited in Sprinthall,p. Until these needs are met, the individual will not be concerned with the needs of the next level of importance.
In other words, basic European Journal of Educational Studies 4 3survival needs override other needs in this hierarchy. The theory of hierarchy of need can be related to the school setting. Until these physiological needs like food are met, basic functioning in the learning environment is very difficult, maybe even impossible.
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Good classroom management can help to ensure protection of students from physical attacks by other students, dangerous environmental conditions such as playing around electrical equipment, and from psychological abuse from peers or adults. Gordon believes the teacher has the opportunity to create a learning environment that is kind and respectful in order to meet the nurturing need. Students will be better able to reciprocate genuine loving, caring behaviors toward other people if the demonstration of affection is modeled for them in classroom.
The fourth category of needs that Gordon states surrounds self-esteem, self-confidence, a sense of purpose, and empowerment that will directly relate to love and acceptance.
If a student feels cared for and can express those emotions and behaviors, the student will continue to build self-esteem and confidence. The need of self-actualization can be fulfilled when the more basic needs have been met. All of these theories are an intricate part of the history of classroom management research.
Together the theories help build a foundation upon which we can continue to build our research on classroom management, inclusion of disabled students, reactive and preventative responses, and making value judgments. There is no significant difference in the classroom management among the selected schools. There is no gender difference in the performance of physics students.
There is no significant difference in teacher perception of effective classroom management. The research was a survey on how effective classroom management skills or techniques could positively influence the achievement of students.
The study is carried out in some ten randomly selected senior secondary schools in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos state. The population of this study was directed towards science senior secondary school physics students and teachers in the ten selected schools in Shomolu L.
In all, an equal amount of 80 students each from SS2 and SS3 classes and 20 teachers will be selected from ten secondary schools for the study. It was a modified Likert type questionnaire developed by the researchers through extensive review of literature and from their personal experiences as teachers and interaction with other teachers.
The instrument has two main parts. The first part requested for relevant information on the personal data of the respondents. Part two of the instrument sought for information that assisted in answering the research questions that guided this study. The decisions on the quantitative data obtained from the internal scale were based on the real limits of the number corresponding with the obtained mean rating.
The t-test statistics was also used at the 0. There is no significant difference in classroom management among the selected secondary schools. Further, it is necessary to find out if there is a difference between the performance of boys and girls in the selected schools and makes use of the t-test statistics to know whether the hypothesis is true.
To accomplish this, we used hypothesis two, H From this results, it is therefore seen that the hypothesis is accepted which means that there is no gender difference in the performance of the students in the selected secondary schools. This agrees with the findings of Opyene and Opolot which states that there is no significant difference between the achievement of boys and girls of Uganda SSIII students.
Teacher perception of classroom management Teacher N Mean Std perception of classroom Deviation management 6 21 3. It includes all the things a teacher must do to foster pupil involvement and cooperation in classroom activities and to establish a learning environment.
In short, a well-managed classroom is a task-oriented, predictable environment where students know is expected of them and how to succeed. Research findings also converge on the conclusion that teachers who approach classroom management as a process of establishing and maintaining effective learning environments tend to be more successful than teachers who place more emphasis on their role as authority figures or disciplinarians Brophy, That these factors, which cause disruptive behavior is a common feature of our society that has attracted the attention of different individuals in Nigeria.
In the school system, deviant behaviors have manifested in the form of truancy, loitering, bulling, examination malpractices and lateness to schools. The teachers, school, students and society directly or indirectly are causes of classroom disruptive behavior in secondary schools.
Government funding of schools has been very poor and available funds have not been judiciously managed. Many children by the circumstance of their birth, family, and peer and general societal influences find proper adjustment in and out of school difficult. These are the major problems that give to the disruptive problems, which are encountered in schools.
Research conducted in the past twenty years has moved the topic from relative obscurity to a prominent place in the research literature on teaching Brophy, ; Doyle, Thus the preview adopted throughout this work goes beyond the notion of an authoritarian handing down of rules. It conceptualizes the classroom as a workplace inhabited by a teacher and a large number of pupils, some of whom are ready, willing and capable of learning, others of whom are not. Consequently, there is a less concept of what it means or implies than is the case in industry.
Rather, the effective teacher performs many functions. These functions can be organized into three major roles: The first role deals with instructional strategies and their use. Effective teachers have a wide array of instructional strategies at their disposal.
They are skilled in the use of cooperative learning and graphic organizers; they know how best to use homework and how to use questions and advance organizers, and so on. Additionally, they know when these strategies should be used with specific students and specific content.
Although cooperative learning might be highly effective in one lesson, a different approach might be better in another lesson. The second role associated with effective teaching is classroom curriculum design.
This means that effective teachers are skilled at identifying and articulating the proper sequence and pacing of their content. Rather than relying totally on the scope and sequence provided by the district or the textbook, they consider the needs of their students collectively and individually and then determine the content that requires emphasis and the most appropriate sequencing and presentation of that content.
They are also highly skilled at constructing and arranging learning activities that present new knowledge in different formats e. The third role involved in effective teaching is classroom management. This, of course, is the subject of this book. The following chapters detail and exemplify the various components of effective classroom management. Before delving into classroom management, however, it is important to note that each of these three roles is a necessary but not sufficient component of effective teaching.
That is, no single role by itself is sufficient to guarantee student learning, but take one out of the mix and you probably guarantee that students will have difficulty learning.
Nevertheless, a strong case can be made that effective instructional strategies and good classroom curriculum design are built on the foundation of effective classroom management.
A Guide to Successful Classroom Management, it is a myth to believe that. The potential for problems exists beyond academics. Students experience difficulties at home which spill over into the classroom; students experience problems with peers during class breaks and in the classroom which often involve the teacher; and students experience mood changes which can generate problems, to name just a few. If a teacher cannot obtain students' cooperation and involve them in instructional activities, it is unlikely that effective teaching will take place In addition, poor management wastes class time, reduces students' time on task and detracts from the quality of the learning environment.
However, the systematic study of effective classroom management is a relatively recent phenomenon. Here we briefly consider the major studies on classroom management. For more detailed and comprehensive discussions, see Emmer, ; Brophy, ; and Doyle, Arguably, the first high-profile, large-scale, systematic study of classroom management was done by Jacob Kounin He analyzed videotapes of 49 first and second grade classrooms and coded the behavior of students and teachers.
Kounin's findings are discussed in more depth in Chapter 5, but it is worth noting here that he identified several critical dimensions of effective classroom management. In Brophy and Evertson reported the results of one of the major studies in classroom management, up to that point, in a book entitled Learning from Teaching: Their sample included some 30 elementary teachers whose students had exhibited consistently better than expected gains in academic achievement.
The comparison group consisted of 38 teachers whose performance was more typical. Brophy and Evertson's study, then, might be considered a comparison of exceptional teachers with average teachers. Although the study focused on a wide variety of teaching behaviors, classroom management surfaced as one of the critical aspects of effective teaching.
Much of what they found relative to classroom management supported the earlier findings of Kounin. Brophy and Everson say this about their study: Much has been said. Probably the most important point to bear in mind is that almost all surveys of teacher effectiveness report that classroom management skills are of primary importance in determining teaching success, whether it is measured by student learning or by ratings.
Thus, management skills are crucial and fundamental. A teacher who is grossly inadequate in classroom management skills is probably not going to accomplish much.
The first study involved 27 elementary school teachers. The second involved 51 junior high school teachers. Results from the elementary school study were reported in Emmer, Evertson, and Anderson and Anderson, Evertson, and Emmer Results from the junior high study were reported in Evertson and Emmer and in Sanford and Evertson Both studies were descriptive and correlational in nature and identified those teacher actions associated with student on-task behavior and disruptive behavior.
Again, Kounin's earlier findings were strongly supported.
Chapter 1. The Critical Role of Classroom Management
One of the more significant conclusions from these studies was that early attention to classroom management at the beginning of the school year is a critical ingredient of a well-run classroom.
The third and fourth studies, also conducted in the elementary and junior high schools, respectively, examined the impact of training in classroom management techniques based on findings from the first two studies.
As described by EmmerIn the later two studies, the interventions occurred at the beginning of the school year and resulted in improved teacher behavior in many, but not all, management areas and also in more appropriate student behavior in experimental group classes as compared to control group classes. To date, these books have been considered the primary resources for the application of the research on classroom management to K education.
It involved in-depth interviews with and observations of 98 teachers, some of whom were identified as effective managers and some of whom were not. The study presented teachers with vignettes regarding specific types of students e. Among the many findings from the study was that effective classroom managers tended to employ different types of strategies with different types of students, whereas ineffective managers tended to use the same strategies regardless of the type of student or the situation.
Chapter 4 presents the implications of Brophy's study in more depth. In spite of the profound impact of these various studies, classroom management received its strongest endorsement in a comprehensive study by Margaret Wang, Geneva Haertel, and Herbert Walberg They combined the results of three previous studies. One involved a content analysis of 86 chapters from annual research reviews, 44 handbook chapters, 20 government and commissioned reports, and 11 journal articles. This analysis produced a list of variables identified as having an impact on student achievement.
The second study involved a survey of education experts who were asked to rate each of the variables in terms of the relative strength of their impact on student achievement. The third study involved an analysis of 91 major research syntheses. The end result of this massive review was that classroom management was rated first in terms of its impact on student achievement. In summary, the research over the past 30 years indicates that classroom management is one of the critical ingredients of effective teaching.
Many studies and many books have been published articulating the specifics of effective classroom management. So what does this book have to offer that has not already been established? Certainly, this book reinforces the findings and suggestions from many of the previous works. However, the recommendations in this book are based on a new research methodology not previously employed with the classroom management literature per se.
That methodology is meta-analysis.