Scottish English - Wikipedia
But Holyrood also hopes to remind Indians of the role that Scots the rekindling of Scotland's relationship with the former capital of British India. But what do modern Indians think about the British? I have an intimate family connection to the independence movement in India. It is not. The British weren't quite as standoffish in India as the history books may began to research the subject, he was surprised to find he too had Indian blood into Scottish society, while the only girl from the marriage, Noor Jah.
The topic of German Hobbyism has become more recently documented by mainstream news sources New York Timesthe Huffington Postand independent filmmakers such as Howie Summers, who created a short documentary titled Indianer that explores German Hobbyists and their fascinations.
He described the participants as wearing as many "breastplates, bear claw necklaces, feathers and bone jewelry as they seemed able to physically support," and that the attendees also wore Native American costumes in addition to the hobbyist dancers.
Deloria dubs it "playing Indian," which he defines as the adoption or portrayal of being Native by Anglo-American individuals. These actions are often motivated by hobby and sometimes financial gain. Further, Deloria writes that these individuals and groups who play Indian build a collectivity in their performance of otherness, which in turn defines their own identity through the distinction of playing the national " other.
Her book Ethnic Drag discusses the ways in which Germans have historically dressed up as "othered" peoples, which includes JewsNative Americans, and Turks.
While the portrayals of Jews and Turks were largely negative stereotypes, the portrayal of Native Americans differed in that they were seen as heroic and noble. The first Native American women's theater troupe known as Spiderwoman Theater traveled to Germany and Europe in order to perform a satire of the European and particularly German fascination with Native Americans.
According to Spiderwoman Theater, it was an act of resistance meant to reclaim their identity as real Native Americans."The Irish" - Russell Peters - The Green Card Tour
Haircrow has traveled to pow wows and reported to Indian Country Today Media Network about his experience as a Native American at an event in which Germans performed Native American identity. He reported the premiere of the blockbuster remake The Lone Rangerin which Hobbyists were hired to perform as Native Americans in Berlin.
The scalps were not returned to the Ojibwe nation as requested, but they were removed from display. Comanche Laura Kerchee, who was stationed in Germany with the U.
Air Forcetold him that "she was impressed with how enthralled the Germans there were by Native Americans. They realize that this is an opportunity to promote understanding and education and a way to market Native culture to a highly sympathetic audience.
This can be seen in recent examples of the Redskins Indian mascot controversy, the backlash against artists, such as Gwen Stefani and Lana Del Reywho have donned feather war bonnetsand the campaigns to educate the public about wearing Native American costumes for Halloween and themed parties, such as My Culture Is Not a Costume.
This same sentiment was expressed by Haircrow's son, who claimed that "they are stealing from others, but don't want to admit it. That's why they didn't want us there, because they know we know what they are doing is wrong. Germany's Fascination with the American Old Westthe actor portraying Winnetou, Jan Sosniokis asked if he thinks that real Native Americans would take offense to the portrayal of Native Americans. The actor responds that he does not believe they would be offended.
This person shares his discomfort with seeing a burial dance take place in the Bad Segeberg performance, and calls it grotesque and claims that it perpetuates a stereotypical image of the Native American. Visiting Native American dancers were shocked when German hobbyists protested their use of microphones and details of their costumes to which they counter-protested. A hobbyist profiled in the article defended the German tendency to focus on Indian culture beforeinstead of engaging with issues that affect contemporary tribes, comparing it to studying "the [ancient] Romans.
On the positive side, a member of the Crow tribe told Hagengruber he was "impressed" by the way Germans maintained a sweat lodge, and Hagengruber comments that "some dying Indian languages may end up being preserved by German hobbyists. Already in the 18th century a specific German view on the fate of Native Americans can be found in various travel reports and scientific excursions. In —18, the poet Adelbert von Chamisso took part in a tour around the world led by Otto von Kotzebue and met native people in Latin and Northern America.
Christian Gottlieb Prieber, a lawyer and political utopian from Zittauemigrated to North America in and lived with the Cherokee in Tennessee.
Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwieda nobleman and scientist, traveled from to to Brazil and from to to North America, accompanied by the Swiss painter Karl Bodmer.
In many areas of the Highlands local folk memory still blames the Clearances for the collapse of traditional forms of life. A telling incident to this effect occurred during the early s, when a radical Scottish theatre group performed a traveling drama that reenacted the infamous Sutherland Clearances onstage.
One weekend they performed for some isolated Highland villagers, and during the play a woman stood up to denounce the character playing the chief villain of the piece, Patrick Sellar.
Why, she asked him, had he done such terrible things to her people? One finds a similar "presence of the past" in American Indian cultures.
Scottish-Indian - Wikipedia
Pueblo Indians of the Southwest annually observe the anniversary of the revolt that drove the Spanish invaders to El Paso for a decade. A number of Pueblos are still critical of Isleta Pueblo, which generally sided with the Spanish in this conflict.
In the late s some Bureau of Indian Affairs reformers were explaining the then-little-known Battle of Wounded Knee to a group of congressmen. Eighteen ninety was the reply. For the congressman, yes—but not for the Sioux. Perhaps it is no accident that some contemporary Scots term the English who move to their land "white settlers. Take, for example, the cross-cultural borrowing of clothing styles. In the Rocky Mountain region local tribes adopted the Scottish brimmed cap, often embellishing it with designs of their own.
Similarly, the New York Iroquois added elaborate beadwork to produce a modified Highland Glengarry bonnet. The most documented Scottish influence on Native clothing, however, occurred among the Cherokee, Creek, and Seminole of the Southeast.
As early as the s, British philanthropistJames Oglethorpe enticed a band of Highlanders, mostly from the Inverness region, to settle in Georgia with the hope that this Presbyterian group would serve as a buffer against the Catholic Spanish in Florida.
The settlers thrived, and by midcentury members of Clan Chattan virtually controlled all the Indian trade within the Creek nation. One trade item that proved popular was cloth for a kilt, for by coincidence the outlawed Scottish kilt resembled the traditional male Creek breechcloth. The Scots traders influenced Creek headgear as well, selling a number of turban like coverings, to which the Natives usually added feathers.
With each passing decade, noted historian J. Ideas, stories, and legends must have been exchanged as well. Although these are hard to trace with any precision, they are potentially far more powerful. In the legends surrounding the Battle of Culloden, one meets, perhaps, the most extensive Scots-Native borrowing of all. The battle of Culloden in did far more than simply send Jacobite sympathizers to North America.
This last dramatic rallying of the Scots clans may also have had an impact on the evolution of American Indian resistance strategy against the Euro-American settlers. Although this is admittedly a speculative argument—no documentary evidence exists one way or the other—it has the benefit of historical logic.
The case revolves largely around the activities of the McGillivray clan. Clan McGillivray proved one of the most staunch supporters of the Stuart cause. A number of Jacobite ballads celebrate the name McGillivray. An early list of members of the Charleston St. This Lachlan McGillivray is almost certainly the fur trader who in the s married a mixed-blood Creek-French woman from the prestigious Creek Wind clan.
There Alexander was tutored in Greek, Latin, British history, and literature. He also briefly worked in a mercantile firm. During these years, Alexander certainly must have listened to tales of Culloden and the massing of the clans, especially Clan McGillivray. These stories of Culloden would almost assuredly have assumed the form of "might have beens. As the initial romantic lost cause, theJacobite defeat of emerged in legend, story, and song as the first "revisionist" history.
As such, it assumed protean forms. When the American Revolution broke out, the senior McGillivray supported the British and eventually retired to an estate in the Highlands. Alexander, however, returned to his Creek homeland. There he lived in a style reminiscent of a country squire, owning a large estate and several slaves.
From this time forward, Alexander McGillivray tried to steer his divided Creek peple through the intense political realities of the day. The Spanish put him on their payroll; the Florida-based British trade firm of Panton, Leslie and Company employed him; and George Washington gave him annual payments.
A shrewd negotiator and prolific letter writer, McGillivray presented the Creek case with skill. In he denounced the Treaty of Paris that ended the Revolution, declaring that the Creeks had always been a free people and that the British king had no right to give away their ancestral lands to the Americans.
He even spoke with a U. Louis in Spanish control, the diplomacy proved intricate. He even negotiated—unsuccessfully—with northern tribes on this matter.
His fragile southeastern alliance held, more or less, until his death in Afterwards, Native factionalism in the Southeast brought further pan-Indian efforts to an end.
A generation later, the Shawnee leader Tecumseh and his brother, the Prophet, created a similar, even more successful pan-Indian confederation to resist the encroachment of the Americans. Even if Culloden had not occurred, there is little doubt that the American Indians would have adopted a similar pan-Indian defensive tactic. In truth, it would be astonishing if he did not. The Colbert family played a role in Chickasaw life all through the nineteenth century, as did the McCoys and McKennans for the Choctaws.
The most famous Scoto-Indian of the early nineteenth century, the leader who oversaw Cherokee removal to Oklahoma, was John Ross. By blood Ross was seven-eighths Scots and one-eighth Cherokee. Educated by clergymen, he always spoke English better than Cherokee, although he understood it fluently. John Ross never forgot his Scottish links.
During the spring of he read of the efforts of a Philadelphia organization to aid the Highland poor—estimated to number three hundred thousand—who were suffering from the potato famine.
The Southeast was not alone in this regard, for many other regions boasted Scoto-Indians as well. Unfortunately, neither lived long enough to continue the line. In the s Rev. David Macrae found a common bond with an Iroquois leader whose mother was a "Mac" and who proudly claimed Scottish blood.
Scoto-Indians became especially prominent in the Pacific Northwest. James Findlay, pioneer explorer of Saskatchewan, sired a son, Jacco Findlay, who was a leading figure in Spokane until his death in On several occasions these fathers renewed their connections to Scotland by returning there with their families or by sending the children overseas for a European education. The most outstanding early twentieth-century athlete on the Isle of Lewis, for example, had an Indian mother.
So many Orkney men returned with their American families that the islanders erected a small college in St. One of these returnees, a lad named "Huskie" Sanders, arrived in Stromness in Product of an Orkney father and a Cree mother, Sanders was sent to Orkney to be educated by his grandparents.
For three years young Sanders participated in the life of a Scottish schoolboy, but he longed to return to Canada and finally his family agreed. When he boarded the ship inhis schoolmates cheered his departure until the ship rounded Hoy and disappeared from view. In one eloquent passage he compared their lives to those of the slaves in the American South. Historians have just begun to pay attention to the Scoto Indians.
Brown have recently provided major contributions to our understanding of these peoples, but a great deal needs to be done. One generalization can be tentatively set forward. From the mother, a young mixed-blood person would learn North American survival skills; from the father he or she would hear stories about another version of education. The French and Scottish fur traders came largely from the same social class.
But the Scots retained a respect for "democratic learning" that the French trappers often lacked. And the heart of this attitude involved literacy. John West, HBC Episcopal chaplain to Red River in the s, was astounded to discover on his trip over that the Scots sailors were both well and scripturally informed.
Every one of them could read the New Testament. Consequently, many Scoto-Indians were exposed to at least a smattering of Western-style education. This, in turn, allowed them to assume yet another social role: One can find a number of nineteenth-century Scoto-Indians who served as cultural brokers or intermediaries between the Native and white worlds.
One does not have to look far for examples. James Ross, son of Alexander Ross and an Okanogan mother, received a formal education and served for years as night editor for the Toronto Globe. Jerry Potts, a mixed-blood son of a Scots trader and a Piegan woman, played a similarly important role in Northern Plains history. Potts participated in the Blood and Piegan victory over the Cree and Assiniboins in the fall of and for years was highly valued by the Canadian government for the skill with which he explained the ways of the Canadian Mounted Police to his people.
He was also a leader in the destruction of the illegal whiskey trade to the Piegans. The Canadian Mounties thought highly of him. Murie, who was born in Nebraska inhad a Scottish father and a Skin Pawnee mother. He enrolled in Hampton Institute in Virginia in and graduated in with skills in printing and teaching; he was also confirmed in the Protestant Episcopal Church. At some time during the s a Pawnee priest, Kurabus, taught Murie an elaborate Pawnee ceremony, which Murie recorded on the old Edison wax cylinders.
For over fifteen years he continued to collect, annotate, and record a large body of Pawnee songs, stories, and dances on the cylinders. Pioneer anthropologist Alice Fletcher Cunningham relied heavily on his aid for her studies, as did Smithsonian curator George A.
In James R. Murie published Pawnee Indian Societies, one of the most important works on Pawnee cultural traditions. Thus, Murie served as an effective "broker" between Pawnee and white worlds. Terminology has changed, and the latter group are now called "Anglo-Indians",  the term that will be used throughout this article. Creation[ edit ] During the British East India Company 's rule in India in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, it was fairly common for British officers and soldiers to take local wives and have Eurasian children, owing to a lack of British women in India.
Ina pamphlet entitled "Thoughts on how to better the condition of Indo-Britons" by a "Practical Reformer," was written to promote the removal of prejudices existing in the minds of young Eurasians against engaging in trades.
This was followed up by another pamphlet, entitled "An Appeal on behalf of Indo-Britons. John William Rickettsa pioneer in the Eurasian cause, volunteered to proceed to England. His mission was successful, and on his return to India, by way of Madrashe received quite an ovation from his countrymen in that presidency; and was afterwards warmly welcomed in Calcutta, where a report of his mission was read at a public meeting held in the Calcutta Town Hall.
Intermarriage declined after the events of the Rebellion of after which several anti-miscegenation laws were implemented. Consolidation[ edit ] Over generations, Anglo-Indians intermarried with other Anglo-Indians to form a community that developed a culture of its own.
Their cuisinedress, speech use of English as their mother tongueand religion Christianity all served to further segregate them from the native population. A number of factors fostered a strong sense of community among Anglo-Indians. Their English language school system, their Anglo-centric culture, and their Christian beliefs in particular helped bind them together.