Annenberg Classroom - Article IV Section 3
Article IV explains the relationship between the individual ____ and between the states Article ___ states that the Constitution is the supreme law of the land. Article IV of the Constitution outlines the duties states have to each other, and the duties the federal government has to the states. It provides for. Article IV explains the relationship between individual what? officials must take an ______, in which they promise to support the United States Constitution.
Neither of these theories has been endorsed by the Supreme Court, which has held that the clause means that a state may not discriminate against citizens of other states in favor of its own citizens. Coryell6 F. Most other benefits were held not to be protected privileges and immunities. In Corfield the circuit court sustained a New Jersey law giving state residents the exclusive right to gather clams and oysters.
Extradition of fugitives[ edit ] Main article: Extradition Clause A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.
Clause Two requires that fugitives from justice may be extradited on the demand of executive authority of the state from which they flee. The Supreme Court has held that it is not compulsory for the fugitive to have fled after an indictment was issued, but only that the fugitive fled after having committed the crime. The Constitution provides for the extradition of fugitives who have committed " treasonfelony or other crime.
Dennison the Supreme Court held that the federal courts may not compel state governors to surrender fugitives through the issue of writs of mandamus. The Dennison decision was overruled by Puerto Rico v. Branstad ; now, the federal courts may require the extradition of fugitives.
The motives of the governor demanding the extradition may not be questioned. The accused cannot defend himself against the charges in the extraditing state; the fugitive must do so in the state receiving him. However, the accused may prevent extradition by offering clear evidence that he was not in the state he allegedly fled from at the time of the crime.
Fugitives brought to states by means other than extradition may be tried, even though the means of the conveyance was unlawful; the Supreme Court so ruled in Mahon v.
JusticeU. In Mahon a body of armed men from Kentucky forcibly took, without a warrant, a man in West Virginia to bring him back to Kentucky for formal arrest and trial. Fugitive Slave Clause[ edit ] Main article: Fugitive Slave Clause No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.
James Wilson of Pennsylvania objected, stating it would require that state governments enforce slavery at taxpayers' expense. Butler withdrew the clause. However, on the next day the clause was quietly reinstated and adopted by the Convention without objection.
This clause was added to the clause that provided extradition for fugitives from justice. The Fugitive Slave Act of created the mechanism for recovering a fugitive slave, overruled any state laws giving sanctuary, made it a federal crime to assist an escaped slave, and allowed slave-catchers into every U.
As free states sought to undermine the federal law, the even more severe Fugitive Slave Act of was enacted. Induring the Civil War, an effort to repeal this clause of the Constitution failed.
New states and federal property[ edit ] Clause 1: New states[ edit ] See also: Since the establishment of the United States inthe number of states has expanded from the original 13 to It also forbids the creation of new states from parts of existing states without the consent of the affected states and Congress.
Article IV - The United States Constitution
This latter provision was designed to give Eastern states that still had claims to Western lands e. It was feared that the political power of future new western states would eventually overwhelm that of the established eastern states. Once the new Constitution went into effect, however, Congress admitted Vermont and Kentucky on equal terms and thereafter formalized the condition in its acts of admission for subsequent states, declaring that the new state enters "on an equal footing with the original States in all respects whatever.
Hagan that the Constitution mandated admission of new states on the basis of equality. For instance the Supreme Court struck down a provision which limited the jurisdiction of the state of Alabama over navigable waters within the state.
The Court held, Alabama is, therefore, entitled to the sovereignty and jurisdiction over all the territory within her limits The doctrine, however, can also be applied to the detriment of states, as occurred with Texas. Before admission to the Union, Texasas an independent nationcontrolled water within three miles of the coast, the normal limit for nations.
Under the equal footing doctrine, however, Texas was found not to have control over the three-mile belt after admission into the Union, because the original states did not at the time of joining the union control such waters. Instead, by entering the Union, Texas was found to have surrendered control over the water and the soil under it to Congress. Under the Submerged Lands Act ofCongress returned maritime territory to some states, but not to others; the Act was sustained by the Supreme Court.
Article Four of the United States Constitution
The constitution is silent on the question of whether or not a state may unilaterally leave, or secede from, the Union. However, the Supreme Court, in Texas v. Whiteheld that a state cannot unilaterally do so.
All the obligations of perpetual union, and all the guaranties of republican government in the Union, attached at once to the State.
The act which consummated her admission into the Union was something more than a compact; it was the incorporation of a new member into the political body. And it was final.
February 21, by NCC Staff Article IV of the Constitution outlines the duties states have to each other, and the duties the federal government has to the states. It provides for the admission of new states and defines a process for changing state boundaries. It also originally included the Fugitive Slave clause, which is now obsolete.
Article IV: States' Relations - National Constitution Center
The following was prepared by the Office of the Secretary of the Senate with the assistance of the Library of Congress, providing the original text of each clause of the Constitution with an accompanying explanation of its meaning and how that meaning has changed over time. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof. Each state is required to recognize the laws and records such as licenses of other states and to enforce rights in its own courts that would be enforced in other state courts.
Article IV, Section 2: States must treat the citizens of other states equally, without discrimination. Article IV, Section 2, Clause 2: Interstate Rendition Text Explanation A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.