Central State Relation - Legislative, Administrative and Financial. In India, before the formation of the federation the States were not sovereign entities. As such. on the Economic Union and Development Prospects for Canada; Canadian Government Publishing Centre, Supply and Services. The Changing Workplace: Reshaping Canada's Industrial Relations System. Gevers, J.K.M. The Origins and Evolution of the Field of Industrial Relations in the United States. The Penang state government refers to the government authority of the Malaysian state of Islamic affairs. Community relations . "Home". gtfd.info gtfd.info Retrieved "Penang Career Assistance & Talent Centre". Penang State .
This experiment was repeated three times with the addition of sln1c in the third experiment. Himalaya WT and Sln1d lines were grown and inoculated with either O. Plants were harvested 6—8 weeks after inoculation and scored for fungal penetration of leaf sheaths according to the scale devised by Scott The experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with five blocks, each containing ten plants per line of which five were inoculated with O.
The experiment was repeated once to confirm the findings. Due to the elongated nature of the sln1c mutant line, the method described by Chapman et al.
This experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with five blocks as described above. Influence of DELLA alleles on Type 1 resistance of wheat heads to Fusarium graminearum Two independent experiments were carried out to assess resistance to initial infection [Type 1 resistance sensu Schroeder and Christensen ]. In both experiments, lines were inoculated by spraying until run-off with a conidial suspension of F. Disease severity was visually assessed as the percentage of spikelets infected at 14 dpi.
Experiment 1 was conducted in a randomized complete block design field trial with three replicate plots per line. Experiment 2 was conducted in a randomized complete block design consisting of four blocks within which were seven plants of each line. Experiments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicate blocks with seven plants per line in each. Inoculation and disease assessment were as described by Gosman et al. Lines were inoculated at GS 65 Zadoks et al.
High humidity was maintained for 72 hpi by misting. Disease severity was measured as the number of diseased spikelets 14 dpi.
Sections 5 cm of the second leaf were inoculated with conidia of F. Leaves were returned to the growth cabinet and lesion areas were measured after 6 d using ImageJ Abramoff et al. Pots containing individual plants were arranged in a randomized complete block design of four replicates of seven plants per line.
Union can direct the State Governments to ensure that the government of a State is carried on in accordance with the provision of the Constitution. If any State failed to comply with any directions given by the Union in exercise of its executive power, then President may hold that, a situation has arisen in which the Government of the State cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.
The President of India can entrust to the officers of the State certain functions of the Union Government. However, before doing so the President has to take the consent of the state Government.
But the Parliament can enact law authorizing the Central Government to delegate its function to the State Governments or its officers irrespective of the consent of such State Government. On the other hand, a State may confer administrative functions upon the Union, with the consent of the Union only.
Appointment of High Dignitaries: The members of these services are recruited and appointment by the Union Public Service Commission. The members of these services are posted on key posts in the states, but remain loyal to the Union Government.
The Parliament has been vested with power to adjudicate any dispute or complaint with respect to the use, distribution or control of the waters of, or in any inter-state river or river-valley. In this regard, the Parliament also reserves the right to exclude such disputes from the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court or other Courts.
Centre State Relations During Emergencies 1. The State Governments cannot ignore the directions of the Union Government, otherwise the President can take the action against the Government of the State stating that the administration cannot be carried on the accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and thus can impose President's rule on the State. In such an eventuality the President shall assume to himself all or any of the functions of the state Government. Under Proclamation of National Emergency: During a Proclamation of National Emergency, the power of the Union to give directions extends to the giving of directions as to the manner in with the executive power of the State is to be exercised relating to any matter.
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Under Proclamation of Financial Emergency: During a Proclamation of Financial Emergency, Union can direct the State Governments to observe certain canons of financial propriety and to reduce the salaries and allowances of all or any class of person serving in connection with the affairs of the Union including the Judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts.
Union also requires all Money Bills or Financial Bills to be reserved for the consideration of the President after they are passed by the Legislature of the State. It is thus, evident that in the administrative sphere the States cannot act in complete isolation and have to work under the directions and in cooperation with the Center.
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Centre State Financial Relations: Indian Constitution has made elaborate provisions, relating to the distribution of the taxes as well as non-tax revenues and the power of borrowing, supplemented by provisions for grants-in-aid by the Union to the States. Article to deals with the provisions of financial relations between Centre and States. The Constitution divides the taxing powers between the Centre and the states as follows: The Parliament has exclusive power to levy taxes on subjects enumerated in the Union List, the state legislature has exclusive power to levy taxes on subjects enumerated in the State List, both can levy taxes on the subjects enumerated in Concurrent List whereas residuary power of taxation lies with Parliament only.
Distribution of the tax-revenue 1. Stamp duties on bills of Exchange, etc. These include taxes on the sale and purchase of goods in the course of inter-state trade or commerce or the taxes on the consignment of goods in the course of inter-state trade or commerce.
Certain taxes shall be levied as well as collected by the Union, but their proceeds shall be divided between the Union and the States in a certain proportion, in order to effect on equitable division of the financial resources. This category includes all taxes referred in Union List except the duties and taxes referred to in ArticleA and ; surcharge on taxes and duties mentioned in Article or any Cess levied for specific purposes. Surcharge on certain duties and taxes for purposes of the Union: Parliament may at any time increase any of the duties or taxes referred in those articles by a surcharge for purposes of the Union and the whole proceeds of any such surcharge shall form part the Consolidated Fund of India.
Grants-in-Aid Besides sharing of taxes between the Center and the States, the Constitution provides for Grants-in-aid to the States from the Central resources. There are two types of grants: These grants are given by the Parliament out of the Consolidated Fund of India to such States which are in need of assistance.Indian Constitution: Centre -State Relationship -1
Different States may be granted different sums. Specific grants are also given to promote the welfare of scheduled tribes in a state or to raise the level of administration of the Scheduled areas therein Art. Center provides certain grants to the states on the recommendations of the Planning Commission which are at the discretion of the Union Government. These are given to help the state financially to fulfill plan targets Art.
The President by order can direct that all provisions regarding division of taxes between Union and States and grants-in-aids remain suspended. However, such suspension shall not go beyond the expiration of the financial year in which the Proclamation ceases to operate. Union can give directions to the States: To observe such canons of financial propriety as specified in the direction.
To reduce the salaries and allowances of all people serving in connection with the affairs of the State, including High Courts judges. To reserve for the consideration of the President all money and financial Bills, after they are passed by the Legislature of the State.
Finance Commission Although the Constitution has made an effort to allocate every possible source of revenue either to the Union or the States, but this allocation is quite broad based. For the purpose of allocation of certain sources of revenue, between the Union and the State Governments, the Constitution provides for the establishment of a Finance Commission under Article According to the Constitution, the President of India is authorized to set up a Finance Commission every five years to make recommendation regarding distribution of financial resources between the Union and the States.
Constitution Finance Commission is to be constituted by the President every 5 years. Other four members must be appointed from amongst the following: A person having knowledge of the finances and accounts of the Government; 3. A person having work experience in financial matters and administration; 4. A person having special knowledge of economics.
Central State Relation - Legislative, Administrative and Financial
Functions The Finance Commission recommends to the President as to: The distribution between the Union and the States of the net proceeds of taxes to be divided between them and the allocation between the States of respective shares of such proceeds; 2.
The principles which should govern the grants-in-aid of the revenue of the States out of the Consolidated Fund of India; 3. The measures needed to augment the Consolidated Fund of a State to supplement the resources of the Panchayats and Municipalities in the State; 4. Any other matter referred to the Commission by the President in the interest of sound finance Conclusion: In India, the Centre-States relations constitute the core elements of the federalism. The Central Government and State Government cooperate for the well-being and safety of the citizens of India.