Family Patterns of Gender Role Attitudes
The present study explores the relationship between power and love within the context of .. relations between men and women in the family, with male power. male staff to re-define their relations within their families, the NGOs, enabling women staff to discover the power This paper examines the strengths and. Gender shapes power, from the 'private' relationships of the household 'Power equals masculinity' also helps explain why powerful people often of power: how power and politics in the family shape power relations at all.
Thus the study permits to specify more clearly the problems in the sphere of the migrant workers families in eastern part of the country and improve the overall employment and demographic situation in Ukraine today. However, researchers also underline that family presents one of the basic traditional social institutions, which plays an important role in maintaining the reproduction of society, transfers its values and norms to a new generation and influences the general demographic situation in a country.
Speaking about the situation in Ukraine, it is important to emphasize, that the modern Ukrainian family can be defined as traditional, where patriarchal values have been dominating for several centuries. Currently the Ukrainian family is undergoing through certain transformations: This applies to those regions of Ukraine, where a high percentage of migration abroad prevails in the structure of country population.
As a rule, such regions of Ukraine are the west and the east of the country. Therefore, the processes undertaking in the migrant workers families of these regions are particularly interesting for sociological research. Research Methodology Theoretical Background Overview There are two aspects of theoretical background, which are important to the research: The second aspect deals with the study of gender relations in modern Ukrainian family.
The object of the Ukrainian gender sociology traditionally is a female domain where gender-role, social-constructivism, and structural-constructivism concepts prevail Kis, From a constructivist standpoint, by which one can mean theoretical position which emphasizes the importance of internalized cognitive categories to perceive, understand, and interpret events, and oneself, and to organize social action Gergen, The 1 described term possesses dual referents: Increasingly, researchers use the term to mean the methods of inquiry for collecting and, in particular, analyzing data Charmaz,p.
Charmaz argues that the methodological strategies of grounded theory are targeted to develop middle-level theories directly from data analysis. The scholar considers that the inductive theoretical trust of these methods is central to their logic Charmaz,p. The resulting analyses build their power on strong empirical foundations.
These analyses provide focused, abstract, conceptual theories that explain the studied empirical phenomena. One can stress that it is namely the grounded theory approach which presents a research tool which enables to seek out and conceptualize the latent social patterns and structures of research area also through the process of constant comparison Grounded Theory Review, Local Background Overview Thus, turning to the analysis of the labor migration abroad statistics concerning the Ukrainian population, it testifies that the first large-scale survey was conducted by the State Statistics Committee in Moreover, according to the data from the Ministry of Social Policy of Ukraine, obtained by analyzing the labor market, the amount of labor migration abroad covers about 3 million people The state and problems of legal and social status of modern Ukrainian migration, Inthe State Statistics Committee of Ukraine questioned 22 thousand households throughout Ukraine, which included 48 thousand Ukrainians of working age.
It was found, that for three years from to 1. According to annual social monitoring data obtained by the Institute of Sociology of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, the number of people, who have the experience of labor migration is about 2. However the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy of Ukraine data testify the number of migrant workers from Ukraine covered One can specify the quantitative indicators of external migration range from 2 to 7 million people according to different sources, which have been presented above.
This is due to the fact that many of the migrants from Ukraine work abroad without proper permission, being factually illegal migrants. And, unfortunately, the available data Krauze, cannot show the total amount of migrants from Ukraine, but it allows us to identify the tendencies of migration and trace its structure. The problem of migrant families in Ukraine deals with the main characteristics of the Ukrainian population migration abroad.
There are significant shifts in gender-power and the family-role relationships, which are caused by long-term migration processes. As to the level of gender equality we can see that Ukraine occupies the 56th position among countries in the world in Thus, Ukraine rises in eight lines at once in comparing with the global ranking in Ukraine is able to increase the total value of its own index 0. Thus, Ukraine is located between Croatia 0, and Poland 0. Ukrainian index is risen due to the increase of women's participation in economic 0.
Simultaneously absolute gender equality in Ukraine is reached only in the education access area The Global Gender Report Ukraine, This information indicates certain gender changes in Ukrainian society. In particular these changes concern the social institution of family.
Moreover the study of family structure and family relations from sociological perspective is of high topicality for sociological theory and Gender Studies globally and locally. The social institute of family has been dramatically changing for the last centuries.
However up to now it is still presenting the most important constituent of society — the reproduction of mankind. For our research we are particularly interested in tracing the evolution of this social institution and analyzing how it varies and in what way the family relationships are changed under the impact of migration processes in current Ukraine. One can mention that there are specific features of gender-power relations concerning the families of eastern and western parts of Ukraine: However, in the north, in the center and in the south of Ukraine the situation differs from east or west.
Such migration caused by the high level of unemployment in the country can greatly influence the nature and structure of gender and power relations within the Ukrainian family. Structural and institutional power reside in the forms of access to educational, economic, and political resources and opportunities.
In most societies, access to these structural forms of power are aspects of male privilege. Education, for example, provides people with the power to gather and process information, thus understanding the world in which they live. Although women in North America receive educations comparable to those of men, women in other nations often lack access to education and the power it affords. The United Nations reported that females comprise two-thirds of the world's million illiterates. For example, under Taliban religious rule, women in Afganistan were not allowed to attend school, and those who attempted to teach them were harshly punished.
One of the first responses when Taliban rule ended was the reinstitution of education for women. Economies provide people with the power to financially support themselves and their families. The United Nations stated that women's participation in the workforce, although increasing, tends to be limited to a few occupations. In addition, women continue to occupy lower-status and lower-paying jobs.
Women also experience greater unemployment than men United Nations Fewer opportunities in the job market may partially explain the recent increases in the proportion of poor women in the United States. If we proved successful in identifying subgroups of families that are characterized by congruence and incongruence among family members' attitudes, the literature generally suggests that there would be more conflict in families marked by incongruence.
Marital Conflict Marital quality has been found to be related to spousal similarity. Couples who are similar in values, leisure interests, role preferences, and cognitive skills tend to be more satisfied with their marriages than those who are dissimilar in these aspects e.
Gender and power: six links and one big opportunity
Furthermore, based on nationally representative samples of US couples, Lye and Biblarz found that when couples disagree with respect to gender role attitudes i. As Cook and Jones observed, couples with different values and attitudes may have difficulty in their relationships because they appraise events from different perspectives.
Dissimilar wives and husbands may have to constantly negotiate and redefine their marital roles—a process that may generate new sources of disagreement and problems. Parent-Child Conflict Only few studies examined intergenerational incongruence in attitudes and its links to parent-child relationships.
For example, a limited body of research on acculturation has documented the existence of intergenerational conflicts due to differential acculturation of immigrant parents and their children e.
Overall, findings suggest that when parents and children show marked discrepancies in cultural values and attitudes, they report more conflict and poorer relationship quality.
Comparable consequences may occur when parents and children have different views on gender roles.
Like dissimilar couples, dissimilar parents and children may need to negotiate and redefine their roles in the family, which may, in turn, compromise parent-child relationships. However, it is important to recognize that in some instances children's divergence from their parents' attitudes is encouraged by parents Acock,and thus incongruence may not always result in problematic relationships.
Sibling Conflict Our review of the literature found no studies linking sibling attitude similarity with sibling conflict, and from a theoretical perspective, predictions are inconsistent. Social learning theories highlight the role of a model's warm and nurturant behavior in observational learning Bandura,and indeed, some research shows that siblings with closer relationships exhibit more similarity in their behaviors McHale et al.
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From this perspective, sibling conflict should be lower when siblings exhibit larger differences in their gender role attitudes. Study Objectives and Hypotheses The present study was designed to address three research goals. Our first aim was using mothers, fathers, and first- and second-born siblings' reports on gender role attitudes as clustering variables to identify groups of families that differ in their family-wide patterns of gender role attitudes.
We followed recent studies e. First, a hierarchical cluster analysis using a cosine index of similarity with average linkage was conducted. Families were successively paired until all units were grouped into a common cluster. Hierarchical clustering was used here because nonlinear methods cannot represent nested structures within multivariate data Henry et al.
Second, a confirmatory factor analysis using the K-means method was conducted.
To further test our hypothesis regarding gender role attitude patterns, we conducted a mixed model analyses of variance ANOVA to examine the between- cluster and within-group family member differences in the clustering variables. Our second aim was to explore the conditions under which different patterns of gender role attitudes emerged by comparing family clusters in terms of SES, parents' time spent on gendered household tasks, parents' time with children, and the sex constellation of sibling dyads.
Here we conducted a series of mixed model ANOVAs and chi-square analysis to examine the between- cluster and within-group family member differences in these factors. Our third aim was to assess the potential implications of family patterns for family conflict by comparing family clusters in terms of marital, parent-child, and sibling conflict.
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- Gender and power: six links and one big opportunity
Toward this end, we also conducted mixed model ANOVAs to examine the between- cluster and within-group family member differences in family conflicts.
We tested the following hypotheses. Method Participants Participants were two-parent families from two cohorts of a longitudinal study of family relationships. One cohort included a firstborn and a secondborn sibling who were in middle childhood when they first entered the study, and the second cohort included a firstborn and a secondborn sibling who were in adolescence when they first entered the study.
Recruitment letters were sent home to all families with children of the targeted age within school districts of a northeastern state. The letters explained the purpose of the research project, and described the criteria for participation. Families were given postcards to fill out and return if they were interested in participating. Families were eligible if the couple was married, both parents were working, and they had at least two children in middle childhood or adolescence who were not more than four years apart in age.
Family Patterns of Gender Role Attitudes
For the present analyses, we only used data from one occasion for each cohort in which a data on gender attitudes of both parents and children were collected and; b children were in early younger siblings and middle older siblings adolescence.
This study included an exclusively White working- and middle-class sample. The average level of education was The average age was Procedure We collected data through home and phone interviews. Trained interviewers visited families to conduct individual home interviews. Family members were then interviewed individually.
In the interviews, family members reported on measures of development, adjustment, and family relationships.
In the two to three weeks following the home interviews, parents and children respectively completed four 3 weekdays, 1 weekend day and seven 5 weekdays, 2 weekend days nightly phone interviews. Trained interviewers called family members in their homes, mostly during the evening hours. Each family member completed their portion of calls individually. The interviewer guided each parent and child through a list of activities and probed for the context of any completed activities, including the type of activities, how long they lasted, and with whom they engaged in the activities.
Youth reported on activities, including household tasks, personal activities, sports participation, and hobbies.