Other (philosophy) - Wikipedia
The nature-nurture debate is concerned with the relative contribution that both Their basic assumption is that the characteristics of the human species as a whole are a Another example of nature is Freud's theory of aggression as being an child development and the concept of maturation applies only to the biological. The balance of nature is a theory that proposes that ecological systems are usually in a stable The "balance of nature" concept once ruled ecological research, as well as once based only on the relationship between a population and its food source illustrated "Study of ocean life shows a "chaotic" balance of nature". In billion years of life on Earth everything has followed a natural The ability of humans to manipulate the landscape and recognize the Our relationship with nature has historically been one of imbalance and overuse.
Although the nature of the social Other is influenced by the society's social constructs social classsexgenderas a human organisation, society holds the power social and political to formally change the social relation between the male-defined Self and Woman, the non-male Other. The Feminine Mystique The feminist philosopher Cheshire Calhoun deconstructed the concept of "the Other" as the female-half of the binary-gender relation of the "Man and Woman" concept.
Deconstruction of the word Woman—from subordinate in the "Man and Woman" relation—conceptually reconstructed the female Other as the Woman who exists independently of male definition rationalisation ; independent of the patriarchy who formally realise female subordination with binary-gender usages of the word Woman.
So Why the Debate? Sarojini Sahoo said that despite equality with men, women possess a discrete identity that is independent of the male definition of woman.
In the essay "Feminism is Humanism. In feminist definition, Women are the Other but not the Hegelian Other and are not existentially defined by the demands of Man. Women are the social Other who unknowingly accept subjugation as part of subjectivity.
Hence, the harm of Othering arises from the asymmetric nature of sex and gender roles, which arises accidentally and "passively" from natural and unavoidable intersubjectivity. In a society where heterosexuality is the social norm, "the Other" refers to and identifies the same-sex orientation, lesbians women who love women and gays men who love menpeople identified as "deviant" from the binary socio-sexual norm.
- Our Role and Relationship With Nature
- Human nature
- Balance of nature
To neutralise Othering, LGBT communities queer a city, create social spaces, that use the city's spatial and temporal plans to allow the LGBT community free expression of social identity i. The representations of the Other metaphoric, metonymic, anthropomorphic are manifestations of the Western cultural attitudes inherent to the European historiographies of the non—European peoples labelled as "the Other". Using analytical discourses academic and commercial, geopolitical and military the dominant ideology of the colonialist culture explains the Eastern world to the Western world, using the binary relationship of the European Self confronting the non—European Other from overseas.
If this definition of Orientalism seems more political than not, that is simply because I think Orientalism was, itself, a product of certain political forces and activities. Orientalism is a school of interpretation whose material happens to be the Orient, its civilisations, peoples, and localities.
Its objective discoveries—the work of innumerable devoted scholars who edited texts and translated them, codified grammars, wrote dictionaries, reconstructed dead epochs, produced positivistically verifiable learning—are and always have been conditioned by the fact that its truths, like any truths delivered by language, are embodied in language, and, what is the truth of language?
A mobile army of metaphorsmetonymsand anthropomorphisms —in short, a sum of human relations, which have been enhanced, transposed, and embellished poetically and rhetorically, and which, after long use, seem firm, canonical, and obligatory to a people: In early cartography, the distortion proportionate, proximate, and commercial of actual places and true distances established the Western cartographer's homeland as the centre of the mapamundi; thus British cartographers centred Britain in their maps, and drew the British islands proportionally larger than the true geography might allow.
In contemporary cartography, polar-perspective maps of the northern hemisphere, drawn by American cartographers, distort real geographic spatial relations distance, size, mass of and between the U. Post-colonial scholarship demonstrated that, in pursuit of empire, "the colonizing powers narrated an 'Other' whom they set out to save, dominate, control, [and] civilize Counter to the post-colonial perspective of the Other as part of a Dominator—Dominated binary relationship, post-modern philosophy presents the Other and Otherness as phenomenological and ontological progress for Man and society.
Public knowledge of the social identity of peoples classified as "Outsiders" is de facto acknowledgement of their being realand so they are part of the body politicespecially in the cities. The ability of humans to manipulate the landscape and recognize the consequences of doing so puts us in a peculiar position. As a species we are assigned the duty to provide and proliferate. Our goal is to achieve stability for ourselves and our kin.
However we also have an obligation to maintain the environment, as we depend on the resources and services it provides. The question then becomes: Do we have the right to manipulate the land, factory farm animals, and pollute waterways?
Or do we have an obligation to reduce our numbers and merely subsist? In order to answer these questions we must rely on our knowledge of Earth, evolution, and our influence on the environment. History Our relationship with nature has historically been one of imbalance and overuse.
Nearly every step in human history has unfortunately been accompanied with a leap in environmental degradation. At first, humans were incredibly in-tune with their surroundings. Nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes used to roam the lands, following the ebb and flow of the seasons.
These tribes had a measurable impact on the environment, but their influence was relatively manageable due to their population size. With advancements in technology and agriculture though, humans began to find more efficient ways of sustaining themselves.
These advancements allowed for more permanent settlements, which led to rapid population growth and a distancing from nature. As society evolved, populations grew and more and more resources were required to fuel the expansion. With breakthroughs in agriculture, settlements became more permanent and cities began to take shape.
This shift to city life inadvertently led to a distancing from nature. While many people were still in-tune with nature on a subsistent level, the need for more and more resources began to change our regard for nature.
Although our distancing from nature began several thousand years ago with advancements in agriculture and social order, it is the age of industry to which we owe our modern regard for nature. The growth of cities allowed for a separation between people and nature and our obsession with convenience and efficiency beckoned a new perspective on the environment.
With technological advancements, nature became something we were no longer apart of and entirely subject to, but something that we could control and profit off of. The growth of industry enabled humans to truly dominate the landscape and disrupt the natural systems that have been in place for billions of years.
As we have removed ourselves further and further from nature, we have developed a willing ignorance of our role and relationship within it. With the growth of cities and trade we have moved from a subsistent, sustainable economy to one of greed and exploitation.
Humans have always had an impact on the environment, but with the age of industry that impact has been ultra-magnified. Population growth has been exponentiated, cities have become the primary place of residence, and the majority of the world is now out of touch with the workings of nature.
Although every species plays a unique role in the biosphere and inherently has its own impact, not every species has the cognitive ability to measure their influence or the capacity to change it. Humans are unique in that respect, which is the root of the problem. We know we are crippling the environment. Behavioral Genetics Researchers in the field of behavioral genetics study variation in behavior as it is affected by genes, which are the units of heredity passed down from parents to offspring.
Environmental effects are important but what we have learned in recent years is that they are mostly random — unsystematic and unstable — which means that we cannot do much about them. One way to do this is to study relatives who share the same genes nature but a different environment nurture.
Our Role and Relationship With Nature | Environmental Topics and Essays
Adoption acts as a natural experiment which allows researchers to do this. Polygenic Inheritance Rather than the presence or absence of single genes being the determining factor that accounts for psychological traits, behavioral genetics has demonstrated that multiple genes — often thousands, collectively contribute to specific behaviours. Thus, psychological traits follow a polygenic mode of inheritance as opposed to being determined by a single gene.
Depression is a good example of a polygenic trait, which is thought to be influenced by around genes Plomin, This means a person with a lower number of these genes under would have a lower risk of experiencing depression than someone with a higher number. The Nature of Nurture Nurture assumes that correlations between environmental factors and psychological outcomes are caused environmentally.
For example, how much parents read with their children and how well children learn to read appear to be related. Other examples include environmental stress and its effect on depression. People select, modify and create environments correlated with their genetic disposition.
This means that what sometimes appears to be an environmental influence nurture is a genetic influence nature. So, children that are genetically predisposed to be competent readers, will be happy to listen to their parents read them stories, and be more likely to encourage this interaction. Take intelligence as an example. Like almost all types of human behavior, it is a complex, many-sided phenomenon which reveals itself or not!
Heritability statistics revealed by behavioral genetic studies have been criticized as meaningless, mainly because biologists have established that genes cannot influence development independently of environmental factors; genetic and nongenetic factors always cooperate to build traits.
Instead of defending extreme nativist or nurturist views, most psychological researchers are now interested in investigating how nature and nurture interact. For example, in psychopathologythis means that both a genetic predisposition and an appropriate environmental trigger are required for a mental disorder to develop.
This realization is especially important given the recent advances in genetics, such as polygenic testing.