Learn about cardiovascular disease risk factors (cvd risk factors): behaviors & conditions Reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by addressing modifiable risk for one sex or gender; for example, having diabetes may be a stronger risk for and their relationships complex, diet is generally considered to be one of the. Gender. Men. Men generally face a much higher risk of heart disease than women. They also tend to suffer heart attacks earlier in life. After women reach. CVD risk factors were compared by diabetes status and gender. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to determine if relationships.
Subjects were excluded for diabetes of any other type, or for a history of abnormal cardiac anatomy or arrhythmia that would preclude the subject from vascular function measurements.
Non-diabetic subjects were requested to have Tanner stage assessed by a clinician investigator with the option of self-assessment if the subject refused a physical exam.
Medical history was obtained with standardized questionnaires including methods of insulin administration injections vs. Height was measured by a wall-mounted stadiometer to the nearest 0. LDL- cholesterol was calculated using the Friedewald formula [ 19 ]. Statistical analysis Participant characteristics were stratified by both diabetes status and gender and examined.
Because of multicollinearity between A1c and diabetes status, a centered A1c variable was calculated which represented absolute deviations from the mean A1c in both participants with and without T1D to allow for adjustment of A1c [ 2021 ]. Use of this statistical method to calculate deviation from the mean within a group allows for comparison of variability from the mean between 2 groups with non-overlapping distributions, which is expected for A1c in populations with and without T1D.
This later age of onset in women is thought to be linked to the hormonal changes that follow menopause. Socioeconomic status People who have a low socioeconomic status seem to be at a greater risk of cardiovascular disease.
Although the reasons behind this are multiple and their relationships complex, diet is generally considered to be one of the biggest factors, with those from a higher socioeconomic background typically having greater access to a more nutritionally-balanced diet. Cholesterol is a fatty substance that is carried around the body by proteins.
If too much LDL cholesterol is present, it can cause fatty substances to build up in the artery walls and lead to complications. High levels of LDL cholesterol are often caused by factors such as an unhealthy diet, smoking, physical inactivity, high alcohol intake and liver and kidney disease.
Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors
To reduce LDL cholesterol levels, people can eat a balanced diet, undertake regular exercise and quit smoking. Those with extremely high levels of LDL cholesterol may be prescribed medication to lower them, most often statins.
This cholesterol transports cholesterol and fats from around the body to the liver, where they can be removed. Eating healthily, staying active, avoiding tobacco and limiting alcohol intake can all help to increase HDL cholesterol levels.
High blood pressure is often symptomless, but can be easily diagnosed by a doctor, using a routine test. High blood pressure is often linked to being overweight, physical inactivity, a high intake of salt or alcohol or a family history of the disorder, but in some cases may have no apparent cause. Lifestyle changes may help to reduce high blood pressure and, in severe cases, medication may be prescribed.
High glucose levels can damage the artery walls and make the buildup of fatty deposits atheroma more likely. If these fatty deposits occur in the coronary arteries, they can lead to possible coronary heart disease and heart attack.
There are two types of diabetes: Received Feb 28; Accepted Apr Copyright Journal of Thoracic Disease. See the article " The gender gap in risk factor control: Effects of age and education on the control of cardiovascular risk factors in male and female coronary patients.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The incidence of cardiovascular disease is known to be higher in men than in women of similar age, and this gender difference is more prominent at a younger age 1 and is partly explained by protective effects of sex hormones 2.
On the other hand, female patients with coronary artery disease have been reported to be more likely to have a worse cardiovascular risk factor profile 34.
De Smedt et al. There was no significant three-way gender, age and education interaction with multiple risk factors.What is cardiovascular disease and who does it affect ? - Health FAQS - It's All about your health
In overall subjects, women were 3. In addition to the gender difference in risk factors, a gender difference was found in the control target achievement of cardiovascular risk factors: Regarding LDL cholesterol, glycemic status, adiposity and physical activity as targets, the proportion of subjects who achieved each target was lower in female patients than in male patients, and interactions by age and education were observed in LDL cholesterol and adiposity, respectively, as targets.