To examine the relationship between leadership styles and staff motivation

to examine the relationship between leadership styles and staff motivation

The study found that there is a strong relationship between leadership style and employee motivation where the correlation was positive with transformational. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leadership styles and motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork of health. The Relationship between Leadership Styles and Employees' Performance in Organizations (A This study was conducted in Federal Capital Territory Abuja with the use of Good motivation is critical for achieving organizational objectives.

At the same time, motivating employees have been found to be a catalyst for employees performance and therefore for organization success.

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The challenges that are faced by companies in this age are not comparable with the challenges of the past. Another challenge that faces the organizations of today is how to retain its human capital in a competitive market.

Many companies struggle to offer attractive benefits, salaries and incentives [ 1 ] Davis, Small business can still stay competitive by adopting effective methods of motivating employees [ 3 ]. Leaders and managers play an important role in creating an atmosphere and culture of enthusiasm and productivity among the employees that help them do what they need to do.

It seems that the reason for that is the lack of understanding to what motivation means.

to examine the relationship between leadership styles and staff motivation

As [ 5 ], "Although motivation is widely recognized its essence is elusive… it is a complex multifaceted construct, which researchers have approached from many perspectives". This study examines the motivational factors for the employees of a department in an oil and gas private company that is based in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia.

Using a self-made questioner as an instrument to measure the factors of motivation. For this purpose, a questioner which is adapted from a similar study [ 1 ] was developed.

Further, the purpose the study was to find an answer for the following main questions: How do employees perceive the relationship between motivation and leadership? Are employees intrinsically or extrinsically motivated?

What motivates employees working in the oil and gas industry? What do the leaders currently do to motivate their employees and what they need to do in the future? Significance of the Study There is a strong tie between motivation and achievement [ 6 ].

He maintained that motivated employees are almost always high achievers. The literature is almost saturated with research on motivation. However, this study is specific to the context of a small department in a private company. The value of this study can be explained in two goals, which are to: This study was conducted on the employees of oil and gas company, which is located at the eastern province of Saudi Arabia.

Theories of Motivation In order to understand motivation we need to historicize its theories. Theorists of motivation such as Maslow, Mayo, Hertzberg, McGregor and Vroom have contributed to human understanding of this topic [ 1 ]. Although These theories are not new but they still are relevant today [ 8 ], [ 3 ], [ 9 ]. This theory suggests that people have five levels of human needs and they are in order physiological, safety, belonging, self-esteem and self-actualization. According to [ 3 ] first level has to be satisfied before moving to the next level and so on.

Another theory of motivation is the theory of X and Y for McGregor. In this theory, McGregor placed people in two groups; X group who are the people interested in rewards and compensation, and Y group who are the self-directed people and who are looking for challenges [ 3 ].

Herzberg is another theorist who studied employees motivation and developed a thesis which categorizes motivation in two groups; motivators and hygiene [ 12 ]. Hygiene factors are the extrinsic motivators such as benefits, salary while the motivators are intrinsically oriented such as challenging work and greater responsibilities [ 13 ]. Expectancy theory for Vroom was specifically developed for work context. This theory suggests that employees voluntarily choose one behavior over another if they believe that this behavior will result in a desired outcome, application for example [ 14 ].

These theories are still relevant today and they have actually influenced the way current theories explain motivation [ 1 ]. Many theories today still believe in the validity of these theories and more importantly emphasis the intrinsic factors of motivation [ 15 ], [ 16 ] and [ 17 ]. Leadership and Motivation Developing an understanding of the impact leadership can make on employees motivation is important [ 18 ]. In the past, the mission of leader in relation to employees motivation has not been clear [ 1 ] and leaders frequently undermined the importance of developing effective relationship with stakeholders including the employees [ 19 ].

to examine the relationship between leadership styles and staff motivation

Leaders also must recognize that what motivates "X" is different than what motivates "Y". Broder maintains that leaders should implement different strategies that are customized to individuals. For example, some employees simply motivated by the job security, others by clear company policies, power, recognition, compensation, on the other side, there is a category of employees who are intrinsically motivated who are just enjoying what they do [ 20 ].

Leadership Styles There are many leadership styles such as authoritarian, paternalistic, democratic, laissez-faire, transactional and transformational [ 21 ]. In order to narrow down the research I will discuss only transactional and transformational styles.

He maintained that transactional leaders want the same procedures in the company to be followed flawlessly every time the job is done. On the other hand, transformational leadership is inspirational, challenging, charismatic, stimulating and always developing the capability of the employees. As a result, employees are willingly work towards their full potential inspired by transformational leader [ 22 ]. Leadership and Decision Making Styles According [ 23 ] discussed variety of ways through which leaders can make decision.

He maintained that leader can expand or limit the participation of employees in the decision making process. These procedures as follows: Motivation has been found to be correlated with employees productivity [ 25 ]. According to Root, managers who follow Autocratic leadership styles make decisions by themselves without consulting employees can be beneficial decision speed matters and when managers are knowledgeable and this by turn makes employees more comfortable and motivated with this type of leadership.

In this approach, employees are part of decision-making process and by that they feel included and their opinions are valued [ 26 ].

to examine the relationship between leadership styles and staff motivation

The last style discussed by Root is the Transformational style where a leader or a manager brings a vision of the future and set clear plan of achieving this vision. Dataset was transferred to Stata software version All variables with 4-point Likert scales were collapsed into dichotomous variables to simplify analysis of the highly skewed responses on the 4-point Likert scale, and for better visualization of the results. We reversed responses to negative items so that higher scores indicate disagreement to these statements.

We conducted 2 separate factor analyses to identify and confirm latent variables reported by the different questionnaires used.

to examine the relationship between leadership styles and staff motivation

Exploratory factor analysis was done to identify latent variables reported by job satisfaction questionnaire and confirmatory factor analysis was done to confirm the latent factors reported.

Five latent factors were identified from the job satisfaction questionnaire, while 11 latent factors of Mulitifactor Leadership Questionnaire, 4 of Team Climate Inventory, as well as 5 of the motivation questionnaire were confirmed. Descriptive statistics including frequency and percentage were computed for all variables along with inferential statistics methods to include simple correlation to evaluate the correlations between leadership styles and job-related attributes motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork and multiple logistic regression to assess the relationships between components of each leadership style as independent variables and job-related attributes as dependent ones.

Following an explanation of the study, health workers who agreed to participate in the study completed the survey questionnaires anonymously and returned them to the research assistant at the end of the day.

[Full text] Relationship between leadership style and health worker motivation, jo | JHL

Table 2 Descriptive characteristics of sampled health facilities Abbreviation: Though laissez-faire leadership was negatively correlated with motivation, job satisfaction, and team work, this was not statistically significant.

Table 3 Correlations between leadership styles and worker-related behaviors among health workers in Uganda Notes: Table 4 Logistic regression of components of each leadership style with motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork Notes: Discussion Much as extensive research has been made on the relationship between leadership styles and job-related behaviors in health care, 31 — 33 there is limited research on exploring this relationship among health workers in resource-limited settings like Uganda.

Results from this study indicate that health workers in Uganda preferred leaders who were transformational compared with being transactional or laissez-faire. Staff motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork were positively correlated with transformational leadership whereas only staff job satisfaction and teamwork were positively correlated with transactional leadership.

Motivated staff was positively associated with leaders who exhibited II behavior and attributed but negatively associated with those who exhibited management by exception. Job satisfaction was positively associated with only IS. Teamwork was positively associated with II behavior and attributed and Cr.

The study was able to conclude that the more transformational the health facility manager was, the more motivated, satisfied, and team-spirited the health worker subordinates will be compared with those whose health facility managers were transactional or laissez-faire. This finding was consistent with a study in Jimma University Hospital, which found that staff nurses preferred leaders with transformational rather than transactional styles. Facilities whose leaders adopt transformational leadership have the ability to motivate their staff compared with those whose leaders adopted transactional leadership.

Specifically, facility leaders who were seen to exhibit management by exception behavior were less likely to motivate their subordinates. In Uganda today, motivating workers who are poorly paid and work in difficult circumstances is still challenging. These findings were consistent with a study in Ethiopia, 8 which found that, of all transformational leadership dimensions, the beta coefficients of IS had the strongest correlation with both intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction.

This could be because leaders who display IS assist followers to develop new ideas, and motivate them to take alternative routes to problem solving.

This finding is consistent with a study in the Netherlands that realized that much as the teams flourished under a leader who was more charismatic and approachable compared with one who was mostly displaying transactional leadership traits, a mixed leadership is regarded as the most effective.

Working environment in most of the health facilities in Uganda is considered to be dynamic and constantly changing, 37 therefore the leadership style should be mixed and the leader should have the ability to adapt to a style fitting to the occurring situation.

This study was consistent with a report of a rewards project in Uganda which, according to its project manager, had registered improved performance, targets achievement, and an enhanced balance between functions and roles. We used a large sample size health workers, which was collapsed to health facilities and a high response rate Findings should be interpreted with caution in view of the following limitation: This creates some form of selection bias because respondents who agreed to participate may be friendly to in-charge who selected them or if the in-charge was not involved, are more inclined to respond positively due to social desirability bias.

Many leaders think that materialistic work context. The literature is almost saturated with research on Many theories today still believe in the validity of these motivation. However, this study is specific to the context of a theories and more importantly emphasis the intrinsic factors small department in a private company. The value of this of motivation [15], [16] and [17]. Leadership and Motivation Identify useful strategies that can help the leaders in an oil and gas company develop an atmosphere of motivation.

Developing an understanding of the impact leadership can make on employees motivation is important [18]. Broder maintains that 2. Literature Review leaders should implement different strategies that are customized to individuals.

For example, some employees 2. Theories of Motivation simply motivated by the job security, others by clear company In order to understand motivation we need to historicize its policies, power, recognition, compensation, on the other side, theories. Theorists of motivation such as Maslow, Mayo, there is a category of employees who are intrinsically motivated who are just enjoying what they do [20].

Leadership Styles Root, managers who follow Autocratic leadership styles make decisions by themselves without consulting There are many leadership styles such as authoritarian, employees can be beneficial decision speed matters and paternalistic, democratic, laissez-faire, transactional and when managers are knowledgeable and this by turn makes transformational [21].

In order to narrow down the research I employees more comfortable and motivated with this type of will discuss only transactional and transformational styles. In this approach, employees are part occurs. He maintained that transactional leaders want the of decision-making process and by that they feel included same procedures in the company to be followed flawlessly and their opinions are valued [26].

The third style is the Quit every time the job is done. The last On the other hand, transformational leadership is style discussed by Root is the Transformational style where a inspirational, challenging, charismatic, stimulating and leader or a manager brings a vision of the future and set clear always developing the capability of the employees.

As a plan of achieving this vision. Other Relevant Studies [27] surveyed 50 employees in a petrochemical company in 2. Leadership and Decision Making Styles India to find out the relation between leadership style and According [23] discussed variety of ways through which motivation.

They found that employees tend to be more leaders can make decision. He maintained that leader can motivated with transformational style of leadership than expand or limit the participation of employees in the decision transactional or laissez-faire styles. These procedures as follows: In over the decision. He found that a close positive relationship other employee by the leader.

Methods of Data Collection Motivation has been found to be correlated with employees Research is all about collecting information [30]. Impact of Leadership on Employees Motivation For the purpose of this research, mixed methods approach of quantitative and qualitative methods was used to collect data.

Quantitative approach is used to test a hypothesis, measure the size of phenomenon of interest and then generalize the results [31]. Qualitative approach is used when you want to understand the phenomenon and take into consideration personal opinions [32].

Such qualitative analysis will assist in acquiring a better understanding of the specific context of an oil and gas industry setting.

Choosing mixed methods approach will help ensure the reliability of the results, make it easily accepted by readers and most importantly, overcome limitation of single methodology [33] Using multiple methods in the same Figure 1. Of total number of participants, 22 are in non-managerial position, while eight are in managerial position.

In order to study the perception of employees on the impact of leadership, a questionnaire was developed to measure iii. A five point Likert Scale with strongly agree; agree; neutral; disagree; and strongly disagree, was used from main items. To collect data, an email with the link to the questionnaire was sent to the employees of the company.

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Once responses were received, they were consolidated in a sheet and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Participants of this survey were randomly selected. Random sample technique ensures equal opportunity to all target population to participate in the study, hence, more reliable results. Data Analysis Figure 2. Survey results were compiled and entered in SPSS and results were analyzed accordingly. Applicable descriptive and Of total number of participants, 22 are in shared services inferential statistics has been extracted.

For the results department, while eight are in operation. Education level analyzed using thematic and coding. Participants age Table 1. N Minimum Maximum Mean Std.