Indigenous-French Relations | The Canadian Encyclopedia
Canadian Perspective: If someone is the same age or younger, simply call them by their given names and creative methods that they would hardly acquire from local management/ resources. . Cultural Information - Relationship -building. While the Vikings, sailing on sophisticated ships called knarrs, travelled to North America in the Middle Ages, Heavy plows (called "French" plows and similar to the medieval Company to carry furs and trade goods along inland waterways. Railway technology also had an effect on bridge building. Medieval technology is the technology used in medieval Europe under Christian rule. After the The fourth part of the device was the team of eight oxen guided by the farmer. but lost popularity throughout the Middle Ages until around the 11th century. Medieval construction technique, with a brief chapter on tools.
In Southwestern Ontariopetroleum extraction began inshortly before Americans began doing the same. Southwestern Ontario — the village of Oil Springs, in particular — also led the way in the chemical refining of crude petroleum in North America. York boats were used by the Hudson's Bay Company to carry furs and trade goods along inland waterways. They could be operated either by oar or sail. Transportation, over huge distances and difficult terrain, posed enormous challenges.
The birchbark canoe long used by Indigenous peoples, and adopted by French fur traders, linked the North American interior to the wider world. Shipbuilding began in 17th-century New France with carpenters learning the skills of shipwrights.
From the midth century onward, government policy encouraged shipbuilding in the Maritime colonies. A ship unloads ore on the Welland Canal, 23 July Previous Next The importance of water travel to colonial economies was increased by the building of canals.
Attempts to overcome the rapids on the St Lawrence River began in the French regime and continued under British and Canadian colonial authorities. Industries located along the Canal included the Redpath sugar refinery. The first Welland Canalto overcome the formidable obstacle of Niagara Fallswas constructed in the s using mostly American technology developed for the construction of the Erie Canal a decade earlier.
The Victoria Bridge over the St.
Lawrence River, Montreal, Quebec, c. Construction of roads over the long distances between settlements was expensive, difficult and slow. By the end of the pioneer period some arterial roads were completed. Cedar logs were used to cover swampy stretches of road and gravel surfaces were laid where traffic was heaviest. In the s, Canadians experimented with plank roads, using cheap forest products, but the winter ice and spring thaw left them in shambles. Only urban roads were paved, usually with crude cobblestones.
Of greater importance was the coming of the railway, beginning with the Champlain and St Lawrence Railroadalso financed by John Molson. Railway technology also had an effect on bridge building. Agriculture Farming, fishing and forestry were transformed by new technologies of production and processing. Clay drainage tiles in the rainy East and wooden irrigation flumes in the dry West increased the productivity of land. New varieties of hardy, early ripening wheat and harvest excursion trains to bring in much needed seasonal labour began the transformation of the prairies to a granary for the world.
The introduction of rolling mills, which processed hard western wheat more quickly, radically changed flour milling. One of the first roller mills was the E. Snider mill in St JacobsOntario, in the s.
As farming continued to mechanize, firms such as Massey, Harris and the Cockshutt Plow Company developed a full line of farm machinery for most operations and sought wider markets. Together, Canadian and American manufacturers created a common pool of agricultural equipment that freed farmers from colonial-era dependence on European technology.
Fishing By the s, Atlantic fishing technology had been changed by the introduction of the longline or "bultow. On the Pacific coast, gillnetting harvested enormous numbers of salmon, which mechanized butchering and canning facilities processed into a readily exportable product. Government and university-based research investigated and offered solutions to many of the technical problems associated with harvesting and processing fish and other seafood.
Forestry Lumbering continued in eastern Canada, joined by British Columbiawith provincial governments increasingly encouraging the milling of logs into lumber domestically rather then exporting them to the United States. Mining While the FraserCariboo and Yukon gold rushes were dramatic, the discovery of base metal deposits had more lasting technical implications.
Metallurgical techniques were often the final key to unlocking the wealth of these mines. The Orford process was used to separate the copper-nickel ores of the Sudbury Basin, while differential flotation was used to extract the complex ores, containing mostly lead and zinc, at the smelter in TrailBritish Columbia. Transportation The opening of the Peterborough lift lock on the Trent Canal, Canals were recognized as efficient carriers of bulk cargo, and as shipping increased on the Great Lakes improvements were needed.
Starting in the s and continuing into the s, the Welland Canal was rerouted and deepened, first to 12 feet 3. More construction on the Trent Canal facilitated the development of Central Ontario.
The Peterborough lift lock, designed by R. Rogers, was the largest of its kind in the world and an outstanding engineering achievement. Construction first of the Canadian Pacific Railway and then two other transcontinental lines through the difficult rock and muskeg of the Canadian Shieldacross the prairies and through the Rockiesbecame one of Canada's greatest engineering feats.
Some of the world's first cantilever bridges were constructed over the Niagara and Fraser rivers in and over the Saint John River in Joseph operates the telephone exchange in Dr. Riddell's drugstore, Lauder, Manitoba, c. Communication technology advanced rapidly with the electric telegraphushered in as a companion to the railways starting in the s. Alexander Graham Bell's telephone appeared in the s and, by the s and s, exchanges were common in most large cities.
The first telephone exchange in Canada was installed in in Hamilton and it had 40 telephones by the end of the year. The first automatic exchange, allowing users to phone each other directly rather than with the assistance of an operator, was installed in Whitehorse by the Yukon Electric Co in The first transatlantic wireless telegraph radio signals were transmitted by Italian engineer Guglielmo Marconi inwhile Canadian Reginald Fessenden may have been the first to successfully send audio voice radio signals in Urban Development In the s, Canadian cities began to grow beyond the size where everyone could walk to work and public transportation was needed.
Horse-drawn omnibuses were followed by horse-drawn streetcars on rails. While the technology was displayed at the Toronto exhibition grounds inthe first Canadian cities to have electric streetcars were Windsor and St.
Catharinesmaking them among the earliest North American cities to adopt this new form of public transit. Urban areas also require large supplies of water for domestic and industrial use, as well as fire protection and a system to handle waste disposal.
History of childhood - Wikipedia
By the s, the water supplies of most large cities were pumped by steam; bysome were using sand filters or hypochlorite of lime for water treatment. English traders stocked axe heads, knives, awls, fish hooks, cloth of various type and color, woolen blankets, linen shirts, kettles, jewelry, glass beads, musketsammunition and powder to exchange on a 'per pelt' basis. Colonial trading posts in the southern colonies also introduced many types of alcohol especially brandy and rum for trade.
A metal axe head, for example, was exchanged for one beaver pelt also called a 'beaver blanket'. The same pelt could fetch enough to buy dozens of axe heads in England, making the fur trade extremely profitable for the Europeans.
The Natives used the iron axe heads to replace stone axe heads which they had made by hand in a labor-intensive process, so they derived substantial benefits from the trade as well. The British began to see the ill effects of alcohol on Natives, and the chiefs objected to its sale and trade.
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Trade was a way to forge alliances and maintain good relations between different cultures. The fur traders were men with capital and social standing. Often younger men were single when they went to North America to enter the fur trade; they made marriages or cohabited with high-ranking Indian women of similar status in their own cultures. Fur trappers and other workers usually had relationships with lower-ranking women.
In some cases both Native American and European-American cultures excluded the mixed-race descendants. If the Native Americans were a tribe with a patrilineal kinship system, they considered children born to a white father to be white, in a type of hypodescent classification, although the Native mother and tribe might care for them.
The Europeans tended to classify children of Native women as Native, regardless of the father, similar to the hypodescent of their classification of the children of slaves.
The interracial relationships resulted in a two-tier mixed-race class, in which descendants of fur traders and chiefs achieved prominence in some Canadian social, political, and economic circles. Because of the wealth at stake, different European-American governments competed with various native societies for control of the fur trade.
Native Americans sometimes based decisions of which side to support in times of war in relation to which people had provided them with the best trade goods in an honest manner. Because trade was so politically important, the Europeans tried to regulate it in hopes often futile of preventing abuse.
Unscrupulous traders sometimes cheated natives by plying them with alcohol during the transaction, which subsequently aroused resentment and often resulted in violence. In John Jacob Astorwho had created the huge monopoly of the American Fur Companywithdrew from the fur trade.
He could see the decline in fur animals and realized the market was changing, as beaver hats went out of style. Expanding European settlement displaced native communities from the best hunting grounds. European demand for furs subsided as fashion trends shifted. The Native Americans' lifestyles were altered by the trade. To continue obtaining European goods on which they had become dependent and to pay off their debts, they often resorted to selling land to the European settlers.
Their resentment of the forced sales contributed to future wars. Fur Traders Descending the Missouric. In this was defined as most of the United States west of the Mississippi Riverwhere mountain men and traders from Mexico freely operated. Early exploration parties were often fur-trading expeditions, many of which marked the first recorded instances of Europeans' reaching particular regions of North America.
For example, Abraham Wood sent fur-trading parties on exploring expeditions into the southern Appalachian Mountains, discovering the New River in the process. Role in economic anthropology Economic historians and anthropologists have studied the fur trade's important role in early North American economies, but they have been unable to agree on a theoretical framework to describe native economic patterns. Smurr tied the fur trade to an imperial struggle for power, positing that the fur trade served both as an incentive for expanding and as a method for maintaining dominance.
Dismissing the experience of individuals, the authors searched for connections on a global stage that revealed its "high political and economic importance.
Image includes a variety of fur throws and clothing, including hides of animals not native to Canada. Historians such as Harold Innis had long taken the formalist position, especially in Canadian history, believing that neoclassical economic principles affect non-Western societies just as they do Western ones. Rich picked up these arguments in an influential article in which he contended that Indians had "a persistent reluctance to accept European notions or the basic values of the European approach" and that "English economic rules did not apply to the Indian trade.
Ray permanently changed the direction of economic studies of the fur trade with two influential works that presented a modified formalist position in between the extremes of Innis and Rotstein.
Reducing them to simple economic or cultural dichotomies, as the formalists and substantivists had done, was a fruitless simplification that obscured more than it revealed. White also helped to create a more nuanced picture of the complex ways in which native populations fit new economic relationships into existing cultural patterns.
In the case of the fur trade, this meant that the French were forced to learn from the political and cultural meanings with which Indians imbued the fur trade. Cooperation, not domination, prevailed.
Present According to the Fur Institute of Canadathere are about 60, active trappers in Canada based on trapping licensesof whom about 25, are indigenous peoples. Maritime fur trade The North West Coast during the maritime fur trade era, about to The maritime fur trade was a ship-based fur trade system that focused on acquiring furs of sea otters and other animals from the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast and natives of Alaska.
The furs were mostly traded in China for tea, silks, porcelain, and other Chinese goods, which were then sold in Europe and the United States.
The maritime fur trade was pioneered by the Russians, working east from Kamchatka along the Aleutian Islands to the southern coast of Alaska. British and Americans entered during the s, focusing on what is now the coast of British Columbia. The trade boomed around the turn of the 19th century. A long period of decline began in the s. As the sea otter population was depleted, the maritime fur trade diversified and was transformed, tapping new markets and commodities while continuing to focus on the Northwest Coast and China.
It lasted until the middle to late 19th century. Inthe permissible child labour age was raised to Instead of the didactic nature of children's books of a previous age, authors began to write humorous, child-oriented books, more attuned to the child's imagination. Tom Brown's School Days by Thomas Hughes appeared inand is considered as the founding book in the school story tradition. Regarded as the first "English masterpiece written for children" and as a founding book in the development of fantasy literature, its publication opened the "First Golden Age" of children's literature in Britain and Europe that continued until the early s.
Modern methods of public schooling, with tax-supported schools, compulsory attendance, and educated teachers emerged first in Prussia in the early 19th century,  and was adopted by Britain, the United States, France  and other modern nations by The market economy of the 19th century enabled the concept of childhood as a time of fun of happiness.
Factory-made dolls and doll houses delighted the girls and organized sports and activities were played by the boys. One group of scholars, following the lead of novelists Willa Cather and Laura Ingalls Wilderargue that the rural environment was salubrious. Historians Katherine Harris  and Elliott West  write that rural upbringing allowed children to break loose from urban hierarchies of age and gender, promoted family interdependence, and in the end produced children who were more self-reliant, mobile, adaptable, responsible, independent and more in touch with nature than their urban or eastern counterparts.
On the other hand, historians Elizabeth Hampsten  and Lillian Schlissel  offer a grim portrait of loneliness, privation, abuse, and demanding physical labor from an early age. Riney-Kehrberg takes a middle position. You may improve this articlediscuss the issue on the talk page.
October Learn how and when to remove this template message In mid 20th century America, there was intense interest in using institutions to support the innate creativity of children. It helped reshape children's play, the design of suburban homes, schools, parks, and museums. Producers of children's television programming worked to spark creativity. Educational toys designed to teach skills or develop abilities proliferated.
For schools there was a new emphasis on arts as well as science in the curriculum. Participatory culture is engaging with media and developing ones voice and identity.
By doing so, children are able to develop their voices and identities in a space separate from adults Henry Jenkins. They also have the right to give their opinions about certain matters, and these opinions should be heard by adults. Engaging in the digital environments gives children the access to worldwide issues, and also gives them the ability to decide what parts of their lives they want to keep private, and what parts they want to make public. Non-Western world[ edit ] The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
October Learn how and when to remove this template message The modern concept of childhood was copied by non-Western societies as they modernized.