Relationships Between Sun, Earth, Moon by grace ray on Prezi
From our perspective, the three objects that have the greatest impact on our lives are the Earth, Sun, and Moon. The Earth, of course, is the. The Moon is in synchronous rotation as it orbits Earth; it rotates about its axis in about the same time it takes to orbit Earth. When the sun and moon are aligned, there are exceptionally strong gravitational forces, causing very high and very low tides which are called.
This means the Northern and Southern hemispheres will sometimes point toward or away from the sun depending on the time of year, varying the amount of light they receive and causing the seasons.
The tilt of Earth's axis is about As such, the moon virtually has no seasons. This means that some areas are always lit by sunlight, and other places are perpetually draped in shadow. The Greeks also believed the dark areas of the moon were seas while the bright regions were land, which influenced the current names for those places — "maria" and "terrae," which is Latin for seas and land, respectively.
The pioneering astronomer Galileo Galilei was the first to use a telescope to make scientific observations of the moon, describing in a rough, mountainous surface that was quite different from the popular beliefs of his day that the moon was smooth. See the moon phases, and the difference between a waxing and waning crescent or gibbous moon, in this Space. See the full infographic. This spurred a series of uncrewed missions by both the Soviet Union and the United States to observe the moon's surface.
Many of these first probes were failures or only partially successful. However, over time, these early probes returned information about the moon's surface and geological history. Luna 2 was the first spacecraft to impact the moon in The first soft landing was achieved inby Luna 9. The United States sent astronauts to the moon's orbit and surface in the s and s. The first mission to the moon was inwhen the Apollo 8 astronauts orbited it. InApollo 11 landed the first astronauts on the moonundoubtedly the most famous of NASA's achievements, followed by five more successful missions and one, Apollo 13, that didn't make to the moon.
Their efforts returned lbs. It remains the only extraterrestrial body that humanity has ever visited. Scientists continue to study the rocks, and have made new discoveries as technology improved. For example, inwater was found in samples from Apollo 15, 16 and 17 — an interesting find given that previous analyses showed these rocks were quite dry.
While crewed lunar missions concluded inrobotic exploration continued. The Soviet Union remained active in robotic lunar exploration through the s and s, even as the Apollo astronauts landed there.
The first lunar sample return mission took place with Luna 16 in Septemberafter multiple failed attempts with other missions. The Soviets also deployed the first robotic lunar rover, called Lunokhod 1, just two months later.
Lunokhod 2, which deployed inset an off-world distance driving record for more than 40 years, until the long-running Mars Opportunity rover mission surpassed it in after several years of driving.
Also in the s, other space programs had advanced enough for new nations to begin exploring the moon themselves. India launched Chandrayaan-1 inbut controllers lost contact with the spacecraft in InChina made history by landing a robotic rover on Earth's satellite. InLRO sent back the best moon map ever. Its high-resolution images of the moon's surface not only provided information about water and geology, but also pictures of the landing and crash sites of various spacecraft and rocket parts.
This phase happens when Earth is between the Moon and the Sun. About one week later, the Moon enters the quarter-moon phase. At this point, the Moon appears as a half-circle, since only half of the Moon's lit surface is visible from Earth. When the Moon moves between Earth and the Sun, the side facing Earth is completely dark.
This is called the new moon phase, and we do not usually see the Moon at this point. Sometimes you can just barely make out the outline of the new moon in the sky. This is because some sunlight reflects off the Earth and hits the moon. Before and after the quarter-moon phases are the gibbous and crescent phases. During the gibbous moon phase, the moon is more than half lit but not full. During the crescent moon phase, the moon is less than half lit and is seen as only a sliver or crescent shape.
Exploring the Earth/Moon System
It takes about The phases of the Moon. Note that the Sun would be above the top of this picture, and thus, the Sun's rays would be directed downward. The Tides[ edit ] Tides are the regular rising and falling of Earth's surface water in response to gravitational attraction from the Moon and Sun. The Moon's gravity causes the oceans to bulge out in the direction of the Moon.
In other words, the Moon's gravity is pulling upwards on Earth's water, producing a high tide. On the other side of the Earth, there is another high tide area, produced where the Moon's pull is weakest.
As the Earth rotates on its axis, the areas directly in line with the Moon will experience high tides. Each place on Earth experiences changes in the height of the water throughout the day as it changes from high tide to low tide. There are two high tides and two low tides each tidal day. The first picture shows what is called a spring tide. Confusingly, this tide has nothing to do with the season "Spring", but means that the tide waters seem to spring forth.
During a spring tide, the Sun and Moon are in line. This happens at both the new moon and the full moon. The high tide produced by Sun adds to the high tide produced by the Moon.
So spring tides have higher than normal high tides. This water is shown on the picture as the gray bulges on opposite sides of the Earth. Notice that perpendicular to the gray areas, the water is at a relatively low level. The places where the water is being pulled out experience high tides, while the areas perpendicular to them experience low tides.
Since the Earth is rotating on its axis, the high-low tide cycle moves around the globe in a hour period. The second picture shows a neap tide. A neap tide occurs when the Earth and Sun are in line but the Moon is perpendicular to the Earth. This happens when the moon is at first or last quarter moon phase.Earth, Moon, and Sun -- An Orbit Refresher
In this case, the pull of gravity from the Sun partially cancels out the pull of gravity from the Moon, and the tides are less pronounced. Neap tides produce less extreme tides than the normal tides. This is because the high tide produced by the Sun adds to the low tide area of the Moon and vice versa. So high tide is not as high and low tide is not as low as it usually might be. Lesson Summary[ edit ] As the Earth rotates on its axis and revolves around the Sun, several different effects are produced.
When the new moon comes between the Earth and the Sun along the ecliptic, a solar eclipse is produced. When the Earth comes between the full moon and the Sun along the ecliptic, a lunar eclipse occurs. The inclusions were formed during explosive eruptions on the Moon approximately 3. This concentration is comparable with that of magma in Earth's upper mantle. Although of considerable selenological interest, this announcement affords little comfort to would-be lunar colonists—the sample originated many kilometers below the surface, and the inclusions are so difficult to access that it took 39 years to find them with a state-of-the-art ion microprobe instrument.
Analysis of the findings of the Moon Mineralogy Mapper M3 revealed in August for the first time "definitive evidence" for water-ice on the lunar surface. Gravity of the Moon GRAIL 's gravity map of the Moon The gravitational field of the Moon has been measured through tracking the Doppler shift of radio signals emitted by orbiting spacecraft.
Moon Facts: Fun Information About the Earth's Moon
The main lunar gravity features are masconslarge positive gravitational anomalies associated with some of the giant impact basinspartly caused by the dense mare basaltic lava flows that fill those basins. There are some puzzles: Magnetic field of the Moon The Moon has an external magnetic field of about 1— nanoteslasless than one-hundredth that of Earth. The Moon does not currently have a global dipolar magnetic field and only has crustal magnetization, probably acquired early in its history when a dynamo was still operating.
This is supported by the apparent location of the largest crustal magnetizations near the antipodes of the giant impact basins.