Ireland–United Kingdom relations - Wikipedia
The relationship between the Welsh and English is characterised largely by tolerance of people and cultures. Historically this has not always been the case, and elements of mutual The Welsh language is in the Celtic language group, whereas English is in the West See also: History of Wales and History of England. English History's Forgotten Context: Scotland, Ireland, Wales* - Volume 32 Issue 1 English historians had been relatively unmoved by contributions of historical . The relations between these putative 'generations' was one of the weaker. history of Ireland, Scotland and Wales over the past century; to comment on how that history quently been assumed, that English historical writing is in fact British his- of considering the relationship between 'Ireland' and 'Britain'.4 In this.
Increasingly positive relations between the two states required the two states to explore imaginative work-arounds to the disagreement.
For example, while the United Kingdom would not agree to refer to Mary Robinson as President of Ireland on an official visit to Queen Elizabeth II the first such visit in the two states' historythey agreed to refer to her instead as "President Robinson of Ireland". The King had a number of symbolically important duties, including exercising the executive authority of the state, appointing the cabinet and promulgating the law.
In the chaos that ensued his abdication, the Irish Free State took the opportunity to amend its constitution and remove all of the functions of the King except one: Ina new constitution was adopted which entrenched the monarch's diminished role by transferring many of the functions performed by the King until to a new office of the President of Irelandwho was declared to "take precedence over all other persons in the State".
However, the constitution did not explicitly declare that the state was a republic, nor that the President was head of state. Without explicit mention, the King continued to retain his role in external relations and the Irish Free State continued to be regarded as a member of the British Commonwealth and to be associated with the United Kingdom. The exact constitutional status of the state during this period has been a matter of scholarly and political dispute.
The state's ambiguous status ended inwhen the Republic of Ireland Act stripped the King of his role in external relations and declared that the state may be described as the Republic of Ireland.
The decision to do so was sudden and unilateral. However, it did not result in greatly strained relations between Ireland and the United Kingdom.
The question of the head of the Irish state from to was largely a matter of symbolism and had little practical significance. The UK response was to legislate that it would not grant Northern Ireland to the Irish state without the consent of the Parliament of Northern Ireland which was unlikely to happen in unionist -majority Northern Ireland.
One practical implication of explicitly declaring the state to be a republic in was that it automatically terminated the state's membership of the British Commonwealthin accordance with the rules in operation at the time.
- Irish-Scottish Relations, past, present and future, Edinburgh's Festival of Ireland, 23 March 2017
- Ireland–United Kingdom relations
However, despite this, the United Kingdom legislated that Irish citizens would retain similar rights to Commonwealth subjects and were not to be regarded as foreigners. The Republic of Ireland Act came into force on 18 April It is a misunderstanding to categorise somebody as Irish simply by their catholic religion more below ; many Protestants have served the cause of Irish republicanism, not least Wolfe Tone, Robert Emmett, Arthur Griffiths, W.
Irish, English, British, Welsh and Scottish - some cultural and political differences outlined
Yeats, Erskine Childers and many more. Lifestyles It is in the evening time that differences between Irish and British people become particularly apparent. Irish people tend to socialise and go to sleep later than British people. For example, it is generally acceptable in Ireland to call to somebody's house unannounced in the evening time and be invited in for some hospitality drink, cup of tea or perhaps some food.
In England, most people would expect you to make an arrangement to visit, and would only accept an unexpected visit if it was an emergency or crisis. Likewise, English people do not tend to phone each other after 9pm or 9.
Friendships are different also - the vast majority of Irish people have a wide range of casual friends, many of whom they know through other friends, or simply meeting them during the course of their day or night!
In England, friendships tend to be carefully developed by introduction, typically by someone they might already know. The strength of our recent economic recovery will no doubt spur further Scottish interest in the roots of Ireland's renewed success. I found it interesting that Ireland hardly featured as an exemplar for Scotland during the referendum campaign.
Indeed, there were occasional warnings pointing to the economic struggles Ireland had confronted in the decades after independence, albeit in very different circumstances after in the wake of a war of independence and a biter civil war.
Incidentally, the fact that Ireland did not become a bone of contention between Scottish nationalists and unionists during your referendum campaign was a source of relief to us. It would not have been pleasant had Ireland become a political football during that passionate period in Scottish politics.
Our Government rightly took a vow of silence on Scottish issues in the run-up to the referendum on the very good grounds that this was a domestic Scottish issue in which it would be impertinent of us to intervene. We took a different view during last year's EU referendum, because the EU is a Union to which Ireland belongs and we wanted our nearest neighbours to remain part of that unique community of European nations.
Sadly, that was not to be and our task now is to manage the consequences of the UK's exit from the EU. But back to When I arrived in Scotland, it occurred to me that although I had studied Irish history for most of my life, Scotland had never been a particular interest of mine.
At that time, I had spent decades reading, writing and thinking about Anglo-Irish relations but rarely giving any thought to Scotland.
I have learnt my lesson. I now refer to British-Irish relations and of course am very conscious also of an important Scottish-Irish dimension.
Cultural relationship between the Welsh and the English
This neglect of Scotland was perhaps inevitable. After all, 19th century Irish history in which I had specialised was dominated by efforts to undo the Act of Union in which the scene of the action was in Ireland or at the Westminster Parliament where Daniel O'Connell campaigned for the repeal of the Act of Union during the s and Parnell and his allies pressed for Home Rule during the s.
There was not much scope for Scotland to make its appearance in the Irish story with its broadly nationalist narrative. Until recent decades, Scottish history was in a very different groove.
In order to see how Scotland has fared in Irish historiography, I had a look at two major works on Ireland's history, looking at their references to Scotland. Thomas Bartlett's single volume history of Ireland published in contains a number of references to Scotland, which is perhaps to be expected because when the book was published Bartlett was a Professor at the University of Aberdeen.
Bartlett covers the monastic connection epitomised by St. This resulted in a Scottish army of 10, men under the command of Major-General Robert Munro being deployed in Ireland during the s.
Irish-Scottish Relations past, present and future - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
This era of upheaval, which included Cromwell's campaigns in Ireland and Scotland, did not come to an end until the s, by which time the Scottish presence in Ulster was well established. In Bartlett's account, Scotland disappears from Irish history from the 18th century onwards although he does pick up an unusual vignette from the years of the Second World War when Ireland's Department of Agriculture astonishingly 'undertook to interview Irish girls in Dublin to ascertain their suitability for agricultural work in Scotland'.
There must be many in today's Scotland who can trace their roots to those who passed through that particular interview process. FSL Lyons's classic modern history, Ireland since the Famine, published in also contains some references to Scotland. These include the impact of two Scottish brothers, William and John Ritchie who were instrumental in establishing the shipbuilding industry in Belfast. He refers to the phenomenon of post-Famine emigration and the establishment of Irish communities in Scotland where, he maintains, a virulent anti-British sentiment developed.
Those Irish emigrants were not always made welcome in the very different Scotland that existed in those days. One of its leading lights, James Henderson, looked to stir up religious feeling in Scotland so as to aid Ulster unionists in their struggle against Home Rule.
These are all essentially passing references and my conclusion would be that, at least in the period covered by Lyons's book, Scotland was a marginal factor in Irish history There is another way of gauging our historical links - through the Dictionary of Irish Biography. Of the 10, or so names that feature in the Dictionary, were born in Scotland. They are a diverse crew - soldiers, academics, writers, clergymen, engineers businessmen and sports figures. Some are famous like leader, James Connolly, but others are largely forgotten today.
Here are some examples. John Arnott was born in Auchtermuchty in and moved to Ireland in the s. By the time he died in he had become one of Ireland's leading businessmen and philanthropists, owner of a chain of Department stores one of which is still trading today, Arnotts of Henry Street, Dublin. George Clarke who came from Paisley became a leading Ulster unionist and shipbuilder whose business career illustrated the importance of the Liverpool-Glasgow-Belfast triangle 'in the industrial growth of late Victorian Belfast' which had 'political as well as economic implications' as the economic development of the northeastern counties created an urban business and working class community with a vested interest in the Union.
A final example is John Jameson who moved from Clackmannanshire to Ireland in and in the process learned how to spell whiskey correctly!
His name is being immortalised to this day on countless millions of Irish whiskey bottles sold all over the world.
There are also some interesting entries on those Irish who ended their lives in Scotland, a number of early medieval monks, Kenneth McAlpin, the first King of the Picts and Scots, the Glasgow Celtic footballer, Patsy Gallagher, who began his life in a workhouse in County Donegal, and someone I got to know when I was posted in Scotland, the rugby international Des O'Brien who won the Grand Slam with Ireland in and went on to manage the Lions on their four-month tour of Australia and New Zealand in !