Familial Relationships in Great Expectations: The Search for Identity . The evening that Mr. Jaggers informs Pip that he is to become a gentleman thanks . and, at times, perplexing dilemma for our students as they are preparing to make the Even the soldiers from the prison ship need Joe to repair the manacles before. Accordingly, George Gissing sees in Mrs. Gamp the Platonic idea of It is in this spirit that Dickens examines anew the relationship be- .. traits of Jaggers and Wemmick in Great Expectations, the only two of . private roles which identifies the essential dilemma. the wife of an emigrant prisoner under the Bank roof. Where does Mr. Wemmick take Pip? 4. What is Pip's impression of Newgate Prison? 5. What is Mr. Wemmick's relationship with the prisoners? 6. A simile is used.
He feared he wasn't done sampling and was sensitive to her marriage track.
Great Expectations - study guide
So he had a choice: He could either defect, kill a good relationship, and rid his system of the romantic wanderlust, or cooperate, continue the relationship, and always wonder if the grass could have been greener.
He chose the former. He removed her from his equation and hedged the risk of frittering her best, most perky years. He made the double-edged bet, adding, "I'm sure I'll regret this in two or three years.
The Kind Mathematics of Selfish Love | HuffPost
We drank wine, ordered all the appetizers, covered dating appsand schemed to flirt with every "Accenture-or-above" consultant that weekend. But mid-bite of guacamole, she said something that struck me, "A relationship is a contract and my feelings are not his responsibility.
It wasn't his place to decide how I would feel. Breaking up to protect my wellbeing was a breach of the contract. And in law school. If that context is helpful. And so that got me thinking about cooperation, selfishness, and disclosure in relationships.
Should the house always look out for the house? When it comes to relationships, nothing is a more analogous in name or practice than The Prisoner's Dilemma. In this classic example of game theory, two players commit a crime and undergo isolated interrogation. Each can choose to defect betray their partner or cooperate keep the secret. If one defects, the cooperative partner suffers.
If both defect, both partners suffer. And if both cooperate, both maximize their outcome. I've been in the situation before -- the role of the defector. I've euthanized an otherwise healthy relationship that had high short-term, but low long-term potential. I've lived the painful days leading up to the break-up, as your partner chirps happily along and you plan the timing to pull your cards off the table.
They chose to cooperate, and you unexpectedly choose to defect. In both romance and The Prisoner's Dilemma, you never know when your partner will become non-cooperative. According to Nash Equilibriumif the Prisoner's Dilemma is played once, the optimal strategy is always to defect.
Which is why first dates are more common than second dates. And indeed, most people do defect on partners in games played once -- it's a mathematical truth. But real relationships are more complicated. You play for many, unknown number of rounds, and incorporate knowledge of your partner's past behaviors into your future decision-making. You keep tabs on up-rounds and down-rounds, frequency of compliments and wait time between text responses, and calculate your trust and cooperation accordingly.
This type of encounter -- one with repeated interactions and memory of previous encounters -- is called the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. If you had to compare romantic relationships to an example from game theory, this would be it. And thanks to American political scientist, Robert Axelrod, I can tell you how to win.
In defending as he thinks Pip's interests before Jaggers, he becomes menacing but Jaggers swiftly placates him. Back to top But Joe is typically a gentle giant. He does what he can to protect Pip from "Tickler" the stick with which Mrs.
Joe beats Pipbut sees that too much interference will lead to more trouble later. The reader is amused by the picture of Mrs. Joe's constant assaults upon this great man, who never retaliates, for fear of becoming like his bullying father.
Joe's great size is a metaphor for his moral stature.
He knows what he can do well in life and does it. He sees what is wrong with Pip's fantasy existence in London long before Pip does. He is always faithful to Pip, but for long allows Pumblechook to take credit due to him. Pumblechook is, in the composition of the novel, the character most clearly contrasted with Joe, or depicted as his opposite; we note similar structural pairings in Estella and Biddy, Magwitch and Miss Havisham and so on.
Back to top Though Joe in Chapter 27 tells Pip he will never see him again out of his forge and his working-clothes, he is man enough to go once more to London when Pip is ill and in danger of prison. His money, earned by honest toil, pays off the immediate debt. Joe wants no thanks and is embarrassed when Pip alludes to it: Both the older Pip who tells the story and Biddy at the time of the events narrated point the reader to Joe's virtues.
There are touches of sentimentality in the depiction of this honest, simple but deep character; but they are only touches, and Pip, remember, aware of his earlier ingratitude to Joe, can be excused for indulging them. The portrayal of Joe is convincing and very moving. Back to top Magwitch and Miss Havisham These two are as far apart socially as can be imagined, and never meet in the course of the novel. From the start they, their worlds, and how he thinks of them are contrasted in his narrative by Pip, yet he often thinks of them together.
They are linked in that both are the dupes of Compeyson, and each responds to his cruelty in the same way, adopting a child and trying to influence the child's upbringing.
Of the two, Magwitch would seem much the better as benefactor. Miss Havisham's disappointment in love is great, but her attempt to lay waste all around her is a terrible mistake: Compeyson may not be unique in his treachery, but he is far from typical of all men. Moreover, Estella may cause some suffering but those who love her have not necessarily deserved it. Drummle, the chosen victim, is, as Pip sees, not capable of suffering the pains of true love, while Jaggers fears Drummle may have more strength for a contest of wills than Estella has.
Finally, the corruption of a child to be the agent of this revenge is immoral. Back to top Miss Havisham's injury is great, but her reaction insane and disproportionate. Yet apart from this she seems a clever and civilized woman.
She sees through her flatterers, becomes as fond of Pip is she is capable of liking any boy, treats Joe with courtesy, shuts out Pumblechook and helps Herbert financially, while offering help to Pip, which he declines. She realizes early on that Pip thinks her to be his benefactor, and knows enough from Jaggers to let him continue in the delusion. It is his error, but she as an older person might easily put him right; yet it suits her not to do so.
When she is confronted by Pip with the enormity great wrongness of her actions she explains but does not seek to excuse her conduct, before asking for his forgiveness. The fire from which she never fully recovers, as Joe tells Pip; Chapter 57 symbolizes her moral cleansing: Back to top She and Magwitch strike the young Pip as beings from another world.
In both cases the characters' strangeness is suggested by bizarre details of dress and appearance, and by their surroundings, Magwitch in the churchyard, Miss Havisham amid her faded wedding finery.
Unlike her, Magwitch rapidly vanishes from Pip's life, though he haunts his memory. Magwitch is a simple man, but having at length understood how Compeyson has used him has a simple desire for vengeance.
His desire for revenge seems not so much selfish as motivated by an urge to punish the evildoer.GREAT EXPECTATIONS [1867 Edition] by Charles Dickens [Stage 3]
Magwitch looks like a brute, as the young Pip notes, and Compeyson's lawyer exploits this when they are tried. He is strong and capable of violence, as Compeyson's scar shows, but he is not habitually violent. Given his background, he is as decent as could be expected; his conduct towards Molly and their child is exemplary. He is too simple to see that he might harm Pip by giving him his "great expectations".
Though he wants to hit back at those who have harmed him, he genuinely wants to promote the interests of the child who helped him on the marshes, and reminded him of his lost daughter. Magwitch is happy to see his "gentleman", fearless of his sentence, and finally comforted to know Estella lives.
Back to top Estella and Biddy Apart from Clara, whom Pip does not meet until late in the novel, Biddy and Estella are the only young women Pip seems to know.
He considers both as possible partners, but for very different motives. At first, it seems that, in her circumstances and background, Biddy is much the more suitable, but it becomes clear eventually that Estella's experience almost exactly matches Pip's own. Biddy, like Joe, is somewhat idealized. She is also used rather schematically for purposes of contrast with Estella.
For much of the novel she almost serves as the voice of Pip's conscience, and certainly she expresses the reader's view against Pip's false judgements. Biddy is a village girl, slightly older than Pip, like him an orphan and "brought up by hand".
While she lives with her grandmother, she is industrious but unkempt. When she comes to the forge, she quickly becomes clean and tidy. She is presented to the reader as a pretty and obliging girl. For this Pip likes her, but she cannot exercise the power over him of the haughty and distant Estella.
As Biddy is literally near to Pip in the house, so she is metaphorically. She begins as his teacher and becomes his confidante. He asks her advice concerning Estella and being a gentleman, and considers how he "might even have grown up to keep company" with her.
It does not occur to him that Biddy might love him, nor that he is patronizing her. Back to top Though she is "not over-particular" for herself, she does stand up for Joe, when Pip suggests a scheme for his education and "improvement" Chapter Biddy is remarkable for her ability to learn everything - a virtue arising from her disadvantaged start in life.
As well as acquiring housekeeping skills and basic literacy, she is "theoretically as good a blacksmith" as Pip in his apprenticeship. When she comes to the forge, she quickly alters its domestic character. She is a tender nurse for Mrs. Joe, whose death, though it at first takes her from the forge a single woman could not live alone with a man to whom she is not marriedultimately enables her to marry Joe.
Biddy makes good use of every opportunity to better herself, and achieves a typical and respectable progress, rising from the ragged orphan we first meet, to an educated woman, village schoolmistress, model housewife and mother, married to a respectable craftsman of reasonable means. This would be as much as any woman of the village could reasonably hope for, and Biddy is more than happy with her lot. Her ambitions are modest, but she achieves them; they are contrasted with the impossible longings of Pip.
Back to top Biddy is warm as the forge she makes her home, but Estella is as cold as her adoptive home at Satis. Dickens' educated readers would know the meaning of her name though the young Pip, who knows no Latin, makes the comparison for himself, as her light comes "along the dark passage like a star". Like a star, she is cold and distant; like a star she is a point by which Pip steers the course of his life.
She signals her haughtiness in her addressing Pip repeatedly as "boy" and ridiculing his speech and "thick boots". The one show of affection, when she allows Pip to kiss her, is a reward for his knocking down Herbert. Even Miss Havisham, having brought her up to be proud and insulting, is alarmed by her own creation as she reproaches Estella for being cold to her Chapter When Estella goes to Richmond, she makes Pip her friend and confidant; she likes him and wishes to spare him the torment she intends for others.
The Kind Mathematics of Selfish Love
Back to top Estella thinks it impossible that she will ever love, and so does not ever entertain the idea of Pip's courtship; as a friend she repeatedly warns him off.
We regard a woman without feeling, who torments others, with disapproval, but Estella is not a selfish femme fatale. Her defective emotions are the result of Miss Havisham's cruel experiment. Estella has obeyed her adoptive mother perfectly.
And Estella is always honest about herself with Pip. The Estella of the final chapter, chastened by her experience of marriage to Drummle, seems at last prepared to admit Pip to a closer relationship, the course of which is left open to the reader's guesses.
Estella, like the convict, is present to Pip, even when absent which is much of the time. She is forever in his thoughts, the source of his obsessive desire to be a gentleman.
Biddy suggests that she does not deserve Pip's love. In fact, given that she is outwardly cold and haughty, Dickens makes her surprisingly sympathetic; we do not feel that Pip is simply wrong to love her. This is partly due to the fact that she, like Pip, is the victim of another person's grand scheme. It is also partly due to her true origins, which Pip discovers and divulges only to Jaggers and Wemmick: The warmth with which Pip tells Magwitch of his lost daughter is surely shared by the reader.
He is, like Biddy, deferential and considerate. When we meet him, he is seeking employment, and "looking about him" for an opening. In this he seems rather ineffectual perhaps he is not pushy enough but given the opening in Clarriker's House note that here Pip becomes the anonymous benefactor Herbert works with great industry, and fulfils the Victorian dream: Herbert is important to the plot, as a link with Miss Havisham and Pip's past, in his loyally helping Pip with Magwitch, and in his rescuing Pip from Orlick.
In London he becomes Pip's intimate confidant, as Biddy has been hitherto. Back to top Other characters Mrs. Wemmick The Pockets Startop and Drummle Bill Barley and Clara Though you are unlikely to have to write about any other characters on their own, you may need to comment on them in terms of their relationships with Pip, or with others. You may also have to answer a question about a group of characters, such as the women in the novel, or the people from Pip's village. Joe is somewhat of a caricature: She is a busy housewife, but her exertions are made it seems mainly to satisfy her own inflated notions of her status, to make Pip and Joe suffer, and to seek credit for bringing Pip up "by hand".
Her presence makes the forge a less welcome place. Her sharp tongue provokes an apt comment from Orlick, and indirectly leads to her injury at his hand, and early death. In terms of the plot, she brings Joe together with both Pip and Biddy, before obligingly dying. She is not much missed.
Back to top Mr. Pumblechook Mrs Joe's great ally is Pumblechook. He is a perfect specimen of humbug: In bringing Pip to Satis, he is pursuing his own gain, and exercising his nosiness. He spends with Mrs. Joe a large part of Pip's premium on a dinner as earlier he gives the sergeant the wine meant to be Mrs.
When, perhaps unwisely, Pip snubs him, Pumblechook takes offence at this proof of his "ingratitude". It is surprising how many people this "windy donkey" takes in, but Miss Havisham is not one of them: Estella is not to admit him to Satis. Pumblechook prefers his own invention to the truth: Pip, as narrator, generally resists the temptation to judge others than himself, but Pumblechook is almost always introduced with some such term as "cheat" or "hypocrite".
He also irritates Pip by such actions as ruffling his hair as a childshaking his hand repeatedly and even adjusting his mourning headdress at Mrs. Other characters from the village that deserve comment are Trabb's boy and Dolge Orlick. Back to top Trabb's boy Trabb abuses the boy for his slowness in serving Pip. When Pip returns to the village, he is publicly humiliated by a bizarre performance in which the boy suggests that Pip thinks himself too superior to recognize ordinary people.
Pip writes to Mr. Trabb about this, but we have no idea what action Trabb takes. The same boy later helps Herbert rescue Pip from Orlick. He is happy to be rewarded by Pip, but Pip's apology for having previously "an ill opinion" of him makes no impression.
Back to top "Dolge" Orlick Pip tells us quite early in the novel Chapter 15 that Orlick claims to be called Dolge, but suggests that this is not possible. He is evidently a competent enough labourer for Joe to employ him. He knows that Pip dislikes him for his attentions to Biddy, and he is dismissed from Miss Havisham's service on Pip's advice.
It is natural that Compeyson should use him; in return for which services, he writes out the note with which Orlick lures Pip to the lime-kiln. Orlick's final crime is the robbery of Pumblechook's premises, for which he is jailed tying up a loose end in the plot.
Pip suspects that he may be guilty of the attack on his sister, but the reader is maybe misled by the reappearance of the leg-iron at the scene of the attack. Perhaps the only action of Orlick's that Pip approves is his stuffing Pumblechook's mouth with flowering annuals. Other village characters Other characters in the village are: Wopsle, who is vain but harmless: Hubble, notable for his long legs and remark about the young "Naterally wicious"and his wife; Mr.
Wopsle's great aunt Biddy's grandmother; introduced briefly in Chapter 7, and at more length in Chapter 10and Mr. Trabb, another pompous type, but less so than Pumblechook. To the village come the sergeant and the troop of soldiers Chapters. Though they have individual peculiarities, they are branded together by Pip as "toadies and humbugs", each pretending not to know the others are "toadies and humbugs".