Relationship between behavioral lifestyle and mental health status evaluated using the GHQ and SDS questionnaires in Japanese factory workers. The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between the practice of These finding may explain the relations of health behavior to both lifestyles and. Our knowledge about the role of lifestyle behaviour on health and The initial hypothesis was linked to the relationship of saturated fatty acids.
The impact of basic lifestyle behaviour on health: how to lower the risk of coro
Labels of food composition must be the guidance for avoiding its use. The three basic behavioural risk factors, i. Some investigations also included alcohol consumption independently from diet and some indices of obesity, such as body mass index and waist circumference or even other behaviours.
The duration of follow-up was variable but usually covered 10 years and up to 24 years, except one study that reported follow-up data of 50 years. All-cause mortality was the endpoint analysed most, but some contributions also considered cardiovascular diseases, coronary heart disease and cancer mortality, while only one presented data on the incidence of major coronary heart disease CHD events.
The reported relative risk of people with healthy behaviours versus those with unhealthy behaviours provided a wide range, from 0. However, this depended upon the number of combined behaviours up to sixthe kind of endpoint, age range, gender, and duration of follow-up.
The conclusion from the above reports is that, despite differences in risk factor measurement techniques, age range, gender, geographical and cultural settings, duration of follow-up and endpoint definition, the outcome seems relatively homogeneous across the various experiences.
A recent meta-analysis confirms and reinforces this impression . Therefore, attention should be paid, if needed, to control these risk factors by the use of drug intervention, which becomes an integral part of preventive action. Detailed indications and guidelines are available from expert committees of various scientific organizations: We also present these data so that they might be used pragmatically by practising cardiologists to foster lifestyle changes aimed at prolonging life expectancy in middle-aged individuals.
This example deals with the Italian Rural Areas of the Seven Countries of Cardiovascular Diseases study, comprising 1, middle-aged men studied during a follow-up of 50 years when the cohort was almost extinct, with a final survival of 2. For the purposes of this analysis, three basic behavioural characteristics were considered, i. Cigarette smoking habits were derived from a standard questionnaire.
Three classes of smoking habits were used for analysis: Physical activity was derived from a questionnaire that matched some simple questions with the profession, classifying people as sedentary, moderate or vigorous.
The mean caloric expenditure of each class has been estimated by two different methods . Such classification was confined to work activity, since in the middle of the last century leisure physical activity was practically nil in the explored rural environment.
Dietary habits were measured using the dietary history, and the outcome was converted into 18 food groups. Factor analysis, for identification of dietary pattern, was carried out, and factor score estimates were produced for each subject, then classified into three classes defined as non-Mediterranean Diet, Prudent or Intermediate Dietand Mediterranean Diet. In the factor analysis, the following ratios were found between the class called Mediterranean Diet and that called non-Mediterranean Diet for food groups intake that were critical in the identification of factor score: These ratios may have practical significance and might be taken into account for practical purposes when giving suggestions to individuals who may be willing to modify favourably their diet for preventive purposes.
Mortality data were classified into three large groups, i. The role of the three behavioural characteristics in predicting mortality from those few large groups of causes of death is reported in Table 1. The comparison deals with the extreme classes of each behaviour, that is non-smokers versus heavy smokers, vigorous activity versus sedentary activity and Mediterranean Diet versus non-Mediterranean Diet.
People who are non-smokers, physically very active or following a Mediterranean Diet are protected against cardiovascular diseases, cancer, other causes and all-cause mortality. This protection is not statistically significant for all other causes and for the relationship of physical activity versus cancer.
Health Behaviors and Lifestyle
An intermediate class does exist between each pair of extreme classes, usually carrying an intermediate risk. Relationship of entry smoking habits, physical activity and dietary habits with mortality in 50 years derived from Cox proportional hazards models. A population-based, cross-sectional health survey was conducted. Altogether 91 settlements with various sizes of population, and at various stages of social, economic and infrastructural development took part in the survey.
The survey was based on interviewer-administered questionnaires, subjects filled in the questionnaires correctly, and the response rate was Questions on lifestyle factors referred to smoking, nutritional habits and physical activity.
There were significant associations between health-promoting behaviour and demographic, social and economic characteristics of the individuals and their dwelling place.
The lower prevalence of healthy lifestyle activities among lower educated, lower income and aged people living in small settlements call the attention to the higher risk of these people.
On planning interventions, special attention should be paid to the geographically, infrastructurally, socially and demographically disadvantaged population groups to provide equal opportunities for them, to live a healthy way of life. The application of the health-promoting index might be used to monitor the effects of interventions to alter lifestyle at community level.
Nowadays the total number of people dying from chronic diseases is twice as many as that of all infectious diseases, maternal and perinatal conditions, and nutritional deficiencies combined WHO, The greatest disease burden in Europe also comes from NCDs: The most prevalent chronic diseases are linked by common risk factors such as smoking or unhealthy nutrition, underlying socioeconomic, cultural, political and environmental determinants and opportunities for intervention.
These determinants influence health opportunities, health-seeking and lifestyle behaviours as well as onset, expression and outcome of disease WHO Regional Office for Europe, Behavioural risk factors, such as smoking, physical inactivity, unhealthy nutrition etc. Many of these risk factors are modifiable, that is why an increased emphasis on behaviour change as a part of primary prevention was suggested by the WHO Regional Committee for Europe WHO Regional Committee for Europe, Living a healthy lifestyle, with its behavioural emphasis, is not necessarily up to the individual.
Socioeconomic status, level of education, family, social networks, gender, age and interpersonal influences all affect the health-related behaviours Denton et al.
Social environment determines the everyday life, financial and cultural conditions and potentials, deeds, thoughts, habits, scale of values, and thus the health status of the individual. Social forces influence a series of choices that individuals make about food, exercise, substance use etc. Individuals make choices in a social context Freudenberg, Parental support and environmental factors such as socio-economic and geographical living area were found to be important for healthy behaviours in Swedish school children Villard et al.
Gaining better health for the people of Europe is in the focus of the WHO's strategy. Prevention of premature death and reduction of disease burden from NCDs can improve the quality of life and make healthy life expectancy more equitable within and between countries in Europe WHO Regional Committee for Europe, NCDs have a multifactorial aetiology and result from complex interactions between individuals and their environment WHO Regional Committee for Europe, So the objectives of the WHO's strategy are to combine integrated action on risk factors and their underlying determinants to reduce the burden of premature death, disease and disability in Europe WHO Regional Committee for Europe, Promoting healthy lifestyle to reduce the global burden of NCDs requires a multisectoral approach involving the various sectors in societies, because the main risk factors for these diseases lie outside the health sector.
That is why the government need to work with players responsible for health, food, agriculture, environment, education etc. The health status of the Hungarian population is quite low by international comparison.
Health Behaviors and Lifestyle
The poor health of Hungarians is the outcome of historical, social, economic and cultural factors, but the immediate and defining determinants are lifestyle and environment e. In Hungary, one-third of the population lives in a small settlement where the number of inhabitants does not exceed The demographic and social constructions of these small settlements and the cities are different; e.
In Hungary, there is a negative correlation between the size of the settlement and the life expectancy at birth—the smaller the settlement, the higher the health risk of its inhabitants is Central Statistical Office, This risk is formed by various factors: Since the political changes of s, there have been significant changes and differentiation in the living conditions of village people in Hungary.
As a result, settlements are in various phases of the development.