# What is the relationship between temperature and atmospheric pressure

### NWS JetStream - Air Pressure

The four elements of weather -- temperature, air pressure, wind and moisture -- interact with one another. For example: Surface temperature. Atmospheric Pressure and other State Variables Pressure (p), temperature (T), and volume (V) or density (rho) Relationships between state variables. No significant correlation was found between daily temperature and onset of . When the temperatures and air pressures were entered into a.

Full second order model: Consider the augmented model: Scatter plot of pressure versus wind speed including developed model including interaction Using this non-response analysis, we have to be: Residual plot of a pressure and b wind speed Solving for pressure we have: The apparent reason for the two solutions is that pressures relationship to wind speed is indirectly related by temperature and volume and therefore, the pressure would be different before, during and after a storm.

Scatter plot of pressure versus wind speed including developed model including higher order terms and interaction This is seen in the estimates when we let: This is an indication that there are lurking variables, either volume not measured or temperatures not provided in this data set are related to pressure and wind speed.

This breakdown is consistent with the Wooten and Tsokos b scale, that around 80 knots there is a shift in pressure differentials and the start of hurricane category 2 in this newly defined scale. Scatter plot of pressure versus wind speed a before the storm and b after the storm Table 4: Standard scores for wind speedpressure, temperatures atmospheric, water and dew point for a the original data and b for the day moving average In the Saffir-Simpson scale, this shift occurs at 85 knots.

As these values vary from hour to hour and have daily and yearly patterns, Fig.

## Air Pressure

To compare these measures near the surface to those measured within a hurricane; consider the non-response model given in Eq. Using this non-response analysis and the raw data, we have to be: Solving for pressure in terms of wind speedwe have Hence, solving for pressure as it has been done in the previous analysis, Eq.

However, as the wind speed increase, this estimate has increase variance. Figure 8 indicates that there is more to the relationship between pressure and wind speed near the surface of the water in the Gulf of Mexico. This is seen in that the estimates for pressure are only accurate during the summer months when temperatures are higher.

However, in the winter months, the developed model does not accurate estimate the observed pressure. This is due to the affects of temperature. By the ideal gas law, pressure and volume are directly related to temperature, but under the assumption that pressure is constant, by Charles Law Pidwirny,here the ratio of volume to temperature is constant.

Therefore, during the summer months when pressures appear to be constant, temperature should explain the interaction between pressure and volumes.

### What is the relationship between temperature, air pressure, wind and moisture?

To compare the behavior of each of the various temperatures and related volumes by scaling the data as follows: Among the variables given, pressure appears to be most constant; in addition, the behaviors of the three temperature readings are very similar. This is seen in Fig. When compared to the other variables, temperature appears to relate inversely; when temperatures rise, pressure and wind speed compensate for the moving volumes of air. This measure is also an indication of the constant nature of the variable itself.

Consider the sums of square error for the variable P: Hence, internal to the variable, the coefficient of determination is the percent of total sums of squares explained by the mean and is given by: As and therefore P is approximately a constant and as and therefore P is extremely variant. Table 5 gives the analysis of the constant nature of the variable pressure. The estimate of the mean reciprocal is 0. The point estimates using the standard sample mean are lower compared to the point estimates found using Wooten's Augmented Matrix as this alternative method uses the variance in the data to estimate the population mean.

Summary output for non-response analysis of means for pressure, P Table 6: Summary Output for comparison of non-response analysis by variable: Correlation Matrix between variables: Pressure, Wind Speed, Temperatures Atmospheric, Water, Dew Point To address the similar behaviors seen in the three different temperature readings, shown in the correlation matrix in Table 7these temperatures are highly correlated with a minimum correlation coefficient of 0.

### Atmospheric Pressure and Other State Variables

Therefore, as dew point is a measure of relative humidity volume and follows a similar pattern to both atmospheric and water temperature, we will use dew point as the temperature reading. Consider the non-response model using dew point as the measure of temperature: Using non-response analysis, the developed model is: Similarly, we can rotate our focus by either solving in terms of temperature or wind speed.

First solving for temperature, we have: Estimated pressure along with observed pressure using 7-day moving averages over time day of year Fig. Solving in terms of wind speedwe have: As with pressure, pressure and wind speed find balance in one of two solutions to the given equation. During the winter days, the true value of the wind speed appear to follow the upper solution, however, in the summer days when temperatures are higherthe wind speed s appear to follow the lower solution.

This reverses in the estimates of temperature, Fig. This additional point of view offers insight into the subject phenomenon and allows us to test assumptions without assigning the title of response variable and explanatory variable but rather related variables.

We have shown that temperature is related to wind speed and pressure when no storms are present; therefore, observing temperatures is necessary to understand when low pressures result in higher wind speed s like those found within a hurricane. However, according to simple correlation analysis, wind speed near the surface is most highly correlated with the temperature, of which, dew point is related to the relative humidity and the density of the air.

Pressure is also highly correlated with atmospheric temperature. Thus the contents are free to expand when they move from the high pressure in the can to the low pressure outside of the can. Expansional cooling causes the contents coming out of the can to cool. This effect can be noticed in spray-on deodorants.

## What is the relationship between temperature, air pressure, wind and moisture?

In the second example, a compressor is shown. This is used in appliances such as refrigerators. The refrigerant air is pressurized into the compressor meaning the pressure increases as more air is squeezed into the same volume. This causes a temperature increase. With time, this heat is lost to the environment through coils.

Additional heat is given off as the refrigerant releases latent heat by turning from a gas to a liquid as it cools. The compressor will be location is a position such as the back of the refrigerator. Thus, the outside portion of the refrigerator can give off heat to the air due to this process.

The high pressure liquid in the compressor is then transferred to the inside of the refrigerator and gradually released.